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Wagenburg:
Fortified and highly trained version of the ordinary wagon laager, capable of rapid maneuvring and impregnable against cavalry. Developed by the Czechs against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire in the fifteenth century.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 252)


Wager of Law:
To wage one's law was to defend an accusation in court by swearing a formal oath of innocence supported by oaths of compurgators, i.e., oath-helpers.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 636)


Wagon Roof:


Waldensian:
A follower of Peter Waldo, a twelfth-century advocate of the apostolic life, who eventually broke with the church over his claim to the right to preach without authorization.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 366)


Wall Arcade:
Series of arches, blind or with window apertures, on a wall face.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Wall Plate:
Horizontal timber along wall top to receive ends of the common rafters, etc. In timber-framing, the studs are tenoned into it.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Wall-Walk:
Sentry path immediately behind the battlements of a castle or town wall.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 212)

Related terms: Castle


Wapentake:
Equivalent of a hundred in the Danelaw.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

Related terms: Hide


Waranio:
A stallion (in Frankish sources of the seventh to ninth centuries). Possibly from Ger. gären, "to effervesce".
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Emissarius (equus) / Stalo


Ward:
Courtyard or bailey.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 227)


Ward, Inner:
The open area in the center of a castle.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle / Inner Ward / Ward / Ward, Outer


Ward, Outer:
The area around the outside of and adjacent to the inner curtain.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle / Outer Ward / Ward, Inner / Ward


Wardens of Autumn:
Officials appointed by the villagers to help supervise harvest work.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)


Wardship:
1) The right of a feudal lord to the income of a fief during the minority of its heir. The lord is required to maintain the fief and to take care of the material needs of the ward. When the ward come of age, the lord is required to release the fief to him in the same condition in which it was received.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Right of guardianship exercised by lord over a minor.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

3) Right of feudal lord to act as guardian during minority of heir.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

Related terms: Mainpast


Warland:
Land liable for tax, as opposed to inland, which is generally exempt from tax.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Inland


Warren:
An area reserved for the rearing of rabbits.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 139)


Waste:
1) The term generally given to land which is unusable or uncultivated with in a holding. It is not taxed. It is sometimes referred to land destroyed by war or raids, which is like wise not subject to tax.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A) Uncultivated land; B) damage to property done by tenant.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)


Watch and Ward:
The duty, especially in boroughs, to arrange day (ward) and night (watch) for the apprehension of those who break the peace.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)


Wattle:
A wooden frame with spaced vertical rods with horizontal rods woven between alternate ways, used for hurdles, fences, or walls.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 139)

Related terms: Castle / Daub / Wattle and Daub


Wattle and Daub:
1) A combination of laths and clay used to infill panels in a timber-framed building.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 212)

2) Hurdlework of vertical stakes, interwoven with mixture of clay strengthened with straw, cow-hair, etc., and finished with plaster.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)

Related terms: Castle / Daub / Wattle


Wave-Moulding:
Slight convex curve between two concave curves (hollows) typical of mid 14th century.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Wealden House:
Now known to be of wider distribution than Kent. A house with open hall between two-storeyed blocks, the roof with continuous eaves, the deeper projection over the hall being supported by curved braces from the jettied end chambers.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Weather-Boarding:
A series of horizontal boards set up on a sill, each overlapping the next, to throw off rain. The boards are wedge-shaped in section, the upper edge being the thinner.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Weathering:
Sloping surface (to buttresses, hood-moulds, etc.) to throw off rain.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Week-Work:
1) Principal labor obligation of a villein, comprising plowing and other work every week throughout the year.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

2) Work done for the lord by his bond-tenants so many days a week.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)


Weistum:
Record of customs made at assembly of manorial inhabitants.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Germany
Related terms: Coutumier


Wergeld:
A monetary value, scaled according to rank, which was put on a person's life in the early Middle Ages.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Wether:
A male sheep, especially a castrated ram.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)

Related terms: Ewe / Hogget


Wik: [wic, wih (Old English)]
A merchant settlement or town, probably originally unfortified and thus different from a burgus or civitas; apparently used in this sense (though also in others) in the North Sea trading area in the Dark Ages.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 201)

Related terms: Vicus


Wind-Brace:
Subsidiary timber inserted between purlins and principals to resist lateral thrust and wind pressure. May be straight, curved or cusped. Two tiers or three usual.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Winder:
Step that changes direction at bend.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 416)


Witan: [Witenagemot]
Council composed of nobles and ecclesiastics which advised the Anglo Saxon kings of England. Also chose the successor to the throne. Resembles the commune concilium.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Woodward:
1) A private forester.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

2) Manorial official in charge of the lord's woodland.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)


Writ:
1) Sealed document, transmitting an order from the king or his courts.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

2) A royal order to a definite person; a mandate commanding something to be done, usually by the sheriff of the county wherein an injury is committed or is supposed to be, requiring him to command the wrongdoer or party accused, either to do justice to the complainant or else to appear in court and answer the accusation against him.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)

Related terms: Writ of Course


Writ of Course:
1) A writ issued as matter of routine and requiring no special authority.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

2) A writ issued at the request of a complainant who desires to initiate an action for one of the ordinary or well-known causes such as the repayment of a debt or the enforcement of a written agreement. A writ not of course is issued to a complainant requesting an exceptional or extraordinary remedy which may be granted as a matter of royal favor, although it is not generally available.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)

Related terms: Writ


Wüstungen:
Deserted holdings and settlements reverted to waste.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Germany



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