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Tabard:
Short, loose garment, open at the side and having short, wide sleeves, worn from c. 1425 by some knights.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Armor


Tâche:
Levy of 4th, 9th or 12th sheaf of the harvest.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: S. France
Related terms: Tasque / Terrage


Taille à Merci:
Arbitrary tallage.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Tallage:
1) A tax levied on boroughs and on the tenants living on royal estates.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Tax levied at the will of the lord on unfree tenants, or tax levied on towns at the king's discretion.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

3) Annual tax levied by lord on villeins.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

4) Arbitrary levy, especially on property of unfree tenants and ancient demesne of Crown.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

5) An occasional direct tax of a relatively arbitrary kind, taken from those who (like villeins) were personally unfree or (like towns) had a customary obligation to pay; thus distinguished from aids, which were regarded as more freely granted. In towns, used in two main senses: A) royal tallages, i.e. lump sums levied by the king before they were superseded by parliamentary taxes; B) town or borough tallages levied by town authorities for their own use.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Tally: [Tally-Stick]
1) A long wooden stick used as a receipt. It was notched to indicate the amount due and then split in half. Tallies were used in the exchequer for accounting and could also be used to assign revenues. The exchequer could issue half a tally to a creditor who took it to a revenue officer such as a tax or customs collector and exchanged the tally for cash. The official would then take the tally to the exchequer when he accounted for his receipts and get credit for the payment when it was matched with the exchequer's portion.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) Reeve's method of accounting for manor's production, deliveries, receipts, and expenditures; notched stick on which it was kept.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

3) A notched stick, which was split in two, one half being kept by the seller and the other half by the receiver.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)


Talmud:
Collection of ancient Rabbinic writings constituting the basic religious authority for traditional Judaism.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Targe:
Round or oval shield used by infantry and occasionally by knights.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Armor


Tasque:
Levy of 4th, 9th or 12th sheaf of the harvest.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: S. France
Related terms: Tache / Terrage


Tassets:
Triangular plates suspended from a shortened fauld after c. 1430, protecting the joint with the cuisses yet allowing greater flexibility.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Armor


Tating Ware:
A type of hard wheel-thrown grey pottery pitcher, decorated with applied strips of tin foil, made in the Rhineland and northern France in the late eighth and early ninth centuries. Found in England only at the main trading centres and important royal or religious centres.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Templars:


Template:
A) Wooden or metal pattern for cutting mouldings. B) Horizontal wall timber, square and 4 to 5 feet long to distribute weight of wall post and roof.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Temporalities: [temporalia (Latin)]
1) The non-spiritual holdings of the church such as lands, markets and liberties.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) Secular possessions of ecclesiastics.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

3) Income or rights arising from the possession of estates or the exercises of jurisdiction over, or in virtue of, them.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 369)

Related terms: Spiritualities


Tenant in Chief:
1) A lord or institution (the Church being most common) holding land directly from the king. All Earls are Tenants in Chief.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A "tenant-in-capite," one who holds land by direct grant from the Crown; one who is a vassal of the king.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)

3) Landowners who held some or all of their land direct from the king; among these were most of the bishops and the heads of many early religious houses.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 369)


Tenement:
A tenure; an interest in land which may be either "free" or "unfree" according to the services which the tenant is obliged to render in return for it.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)

Related terms: Tenure


Tenon:
Projection at the end of a timber to fit into the mortice of the next.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Tenth:
The common rate of clerical taxation, usually granted in multiples or fractions (e.g. half or moiety) of tenths.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 369)


Tenure:
1) A general term for all interests in land; an act or right of holding; a right in land dependent upon a grant from a superior.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)

2) In the medieval sense the holding of a piece of land by giving military service to the possessor of the land.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Tenement


Tepcija:
A high official at the medieval Bosnian and Serbian courts. Neither the meaning of the title nor the functions carried out by its holder are known.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Termor:
A lessee, enjoying the possession of land for a specified period or term, while the lessor retains title.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)


Terrage:
Levy of 4th, 9th or 12th sheaf of the harvest.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: N. France
Related terms: Tasque / Tache


Terre de Sarte:
New lands around terre de mes, the ancient portion attached to the manse.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Lotharingia


Terre Gaste:
Outfield, waste.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Terrier:
Record of boundaries of parcels within village territory.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Central and S.W. France


Teutonic Knights:
German Fighting Order with main bases in Prussia, Hungary and Germany. Recruits almost exclusively from German Speaking peoples of Europe.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Thane:
See: Thegn


Thegn:
1) Originally meaning a Military Companion to the King. It has come to mean a land holding administrative office.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Pre-Conquest noble below the level of earl; local estate owner with at least 5 hides of land and a residence. Richer ones had grand halls behind large defences. Backbone of the royal army. Cite, 214 3) A member of the late O.E. noble or upper class.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)

Related terms: Thane


Theme:
Originally a Greek term for an army corps, it came in the seventh century also to refer to a Byzantine military province defended by that corps. Soon thereafter the whole Byzantine Empire was divided into these military provinces, each under the direction of a strategos.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Third Penny:
The local earls one third share of fines in shire or hundred courts, often allocated afterwards to a particular manor or church as income.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Thoroughbred:
A horse whose pedigree for a given number of generations is in The General Stud Book, first published in 1791.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Three-Centred Arch:


Through Purlin:


Tie-Beam:
Transverse horizontal beam at or near wall-top level, tying together the feet of the rafters and preventing their spread. It is above the wall plate in box-framed types of rood, below it in cruck construction.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Tierceron:
A rib that is neither a transverse nor a diagonal rib but which springs from the same point and reaches to the crown of the vault.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 269)


Timar:
An Ottoman fief assigned to a spahi - or other serviceman - for military service.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Timber-Framed:
Constructed of a wooden skeleton with filling of wattle-and-daub, brick, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Tithe:
1) One tenth of a person's income given to support the church.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The payment of a tenth of one's income to support the church and the clergy; based on texts in the Old Testament books of Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, and made mandatory in the eighth century by the Carolingian kings Pepin and Charlemagne.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

3) Tenth part of agricultural produce, owed for support of local clergy.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 145)

4) A tax of one-tenth levied by the church on harvests and animals for the support of the parish priest.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

5) Theoretically a tenth of a parishioner's annual income or profit, and due by canon law to the incumbent of the parish. Normally regarded as spiritualia but when the proportion in question affected significantly the value of the benefice and hence the advowson, then they were deemed to be lay free.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 369)


Tithing:
1) Peace-keeping group of variable size (most men over 12 years of age were enrolled in a tithing).
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)

2) Unit of ten or twelve village men mutually responsible for each other's conduct.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

Related terms: Tithingman / View of Frankpledge


Tithingman:
Head of a tithing.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)

Related terms: Tithing


Toft:
1) Site of a house.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)

2) Yard of a village house.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)

3) The site of a house and its outbuildings.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)

Related terms: Croft


Toll:
A payment either on goods, vehicles, or persons passing a particular point, e.g. a bridge, ford, gate, or quay, or on the buying and selling of goods at a market or fair.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Tonlieux:
River toll.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Tonsure:
1) The rite of shaving the crown of the head of the person joining a monastic order or the secular clergy. It symbolizes admission to the clerical state.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A clipping of hair or shaving the top of the head; tonsure was the ceremony that dedicated a person to God's service; it was the first step of entry into the clergy.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

Related terms: First Tonsure


Tosks:
The members of the ethnic group to which most Albanians of southern Albania belong.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Tourn:
1) Visitation carried out by the sheriff twice a year of all the hundreds in the county not in private hands. In the tourn, he held a view of the frankpledges and conducted a searching inquest into crime in the hundred.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) The turn or circuit made by the sheriff of a county twice a year, in which he presided at the hundred-court in each hundred of the county.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)

Related terms: Sheriff's Tourn


Tourney:
Mock combat for knights.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Tower Keep:


Town Air is Free Air:
Words used in many town charters to proclaim freedom any serf who lives there for a year and a day with out being claimed by his lord.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Tracery:
Stone openwork pattern in head of Gothic window, screen, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Tracery, Plate / Tracery, Bar


Tracery, Bar:
1) Made up of moulded bars forming geometrical figures, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

2) So called from its resemblance to iron bars bent to the forms required. (architecture)
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

Related terms: Bar Tracery / Tracery, Plate / Tracery


Tracery, Plate:
Cut out of a solid surface.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Plate Tracery / Tracery / Tracery, Bar


Trailbaston:
1) Periodic commissions of justices instituted after 1304 to investigate a wide range of crimes and corruption in a particular area. The name derives from the clud or staff wielded by criminals.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) A) Offences by vagrants armed with cudgels; B) justices commissioned to try such offences; C) courts to hear and determine trespasses and wrongdoings throughout the country.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)


Transhumance:
A pastoral life-style, in which shepherds carry out a regular seasonal migration with their animals, wintering in the valleys and moving up into the mountains in the summer.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Translation:
A) To move a bishop from one diocese to another. B) To move a saint's relics from one place to another, often from the original burial place to a reliquary.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)


Transom:
Horizontal bar of wood or stone in window.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Trapper:
1) Cloth worn over armour or padding by a horse.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

2) Textile or leather covering for a horse, reaching to the fetlocks and usually entirely covering the animal except for openings for eyes and muzzle.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)


Treasurer:
The chief financial officer of the realm, and senior officer of the "Exchequer".
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Trebuchet:
1) War engine developed in the Middle Ages employing counterpoise.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 227)

2) Stone-throwing siege engine operated by means of a counterweight.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

3) Siege engine or catapult hurling rocks or barrels of flaming tow, the principal form of heavy artillery before the bombard and afterwards used to supplement cannon.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Trefoil:
Three-leaved.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Foil


Trespass:
1) A) Criminal offence other than treason or felony; B) civil wrong, redressed by payment of damages.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

2) A wrong done, an unlawful act against the person, the goods, or the land of another.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 258)


Triarch:
The island of Euboea was divided among three great fief-holding barons; each was called a triarch.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 627)


Tribune Gallery:
A gallery above the aisles opening into the nave.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 269)


Trivium:
Grammer, rhetoric and logic, the literary components of the seven liberal arts; the other four subjects were called the quadrivium.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)


Tron:
A public weigh-beam or scales which had to be used for some goods and for which tronage was charged.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Trottarius: [troterius, toletarius]
A trotting or ambling horse, but quite a cheap one (the going rate was about 40s. in the middle of the fifteenth century).
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Ambulatorius (equus)


Truce of God:
A movement that began in the eleventh century which sought to forbid fighting on Sundays and the chief religious seasons and feasts.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

Related terms: Peace of God


Truss:
1) Triangular framework within roof, to be self-suporting and carry other timbers, purlins, etc. These divide the building into bays.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

2) One of the timber frames built to support the roof over the great hall.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Tsar:
Slavic equivalent of the Greek basileus, emperor. The Slavs used it for the Byzantine emperor, and in time when Slavic rulers - i.e., the rulers of the Second Bulgarian Empire and Dusan of Serbia - claimed for themselves the imperial title, they called themselves tsars.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 627)


Tunnage:
Customs duty on wine imported in casks, levied at so much per tun.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Turcoman:
Turkic nomaic tribesmen from Central Asia who began pouring into Anatolia in the eleventh century. Their migrations continued over the following centuries. Many became associated with the Ottomans and provided much of the manpower for the Ottomans' extensive conquests.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 627)


Turret:
A small tower rising above and resting on one of the main towers, usually used as a look out point.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Two-Centred Arch:


Two-Handed Sword:
Large, double-edged sword with a long hilt to enable it to be swung with two hands. Popular with the Swiss and Landsknechts.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Hand-and-a-Half Sword


Tympanum:
Triangular space in the pediment of a classical building, semicircular solid space between the arch and lintel of a Gothic doorway or between the covering arch and lights of a window.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Typikon:
Literally, "a rule;" used for the foundation charter of a monastery; it laid down the rules by which the monastery would be run.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 627)



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