[Serf] Hypertext Medieval Glossary
S
[Serf]
Search NetSERF

NetSERF Features

Medieval Glossary
Advanced Search

Random Medieval Site

New to NetSERF
Top 10 NetSERF Sites
Top 10 NetSERF Sections
Link to NetSERF


Top Medieval Sites
ORB
Internet Medieval Sourcebook
Labyrinth




Follow NetSERFMedieval on Twitter





Click here to find great
medieval books for sale.

In Association with Amazon.com

  Home: Hypertext Medieval Glossary: S Bookmark and Share
[A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z]


Sabaton:
Mail or laminated plate defence for the foot.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)

Related terms: Armor


Sabor:
Slavic for a council.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 625)

Language: Slavic


Sacraments:
Seven sacred acts which were deemed in medieval theology to confer grace; the most esteemed was the celebration of the mass, sometimes simply referred to as "the sacrament".
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)


Sainteur:
Dependent of religious foundation of too high a status to perform manual labour.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Germany and N. France


Sake:
See: Soke


Sallet:
1) A type of late-medieval, open-faced helmet.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

2) Type of helmet, unattached to neck armour and with or without a visor.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)

3) Helmet with a fixed or pivoted visor and extended "tail" to protect the neck, worn by both infantry and mounted men in the fifteenth century. It was often worn in conjunction with a bevor.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)


Sally-Port:
See: Postern


Saltpetre:
Potassium nitrate, a component of gunpowder.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Salut:
Lancastrian French equivalent of the gold crown.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Sanctuary, Right of:
Churches or areas in their jurisdiciton which were recognized as offering fugitives from the king's justice a refuge for forty days after which they had to leave its safety and abjure the realm as outlaws.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)

Related terms: Right of Sanctuary


Sanjak:
An Ottoman province, a subdivision of a beglerbeglik.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Sapping:
Undermining, as of a castle wall.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)

Related terms: Mine


Sasi:
Germans from Saxony; many migrated to Hungary, however, where some became active as miners. Between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries some came from Hungary to various Balkan regions, where they provided technological know-how for the mining; they were known as Sasi.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Sauvement:
Levy for protection of village communities.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Sauvetés:
Settlements founded by Templars near Toulouse as sanctuaries from ill-treatment and exactions.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Sbornik: [Zbornik]
A collection of texts.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Scaffolding:
The temporary wooden frame work built next to a wall to support both workers and materials.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Scale Armour:
Small rectangular plates of horn, sometimes metal, attached to a leather or linen coat. Lighter and more flexible than mail.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Armor


Scallop:
Shellfish, common in heraldry.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Scalloped Capital:
Development of cushion capital in which the cushion is elaborated into a series of truncated cones.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Scantling:
Dimensions of a piece of timber in breadth and thickness, but not including length.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Scarfed Joint:
One in which two pieces of timber are bevelled or notched so that they overlap without increase of thickness, and are then pegged.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Sceat: [sceattas (pl.)]
A Saxon silver coin of the late seventh, eighth and early ninth centuries.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Schiltron:
1) Scottish formation of closely packed footsoldiers, highly effective against cavalry.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

2) A usually oval formation of several ranks of spearmen presenting a hedge of spear points to any attacker.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Hedgehog


Schism:
A formal split in the church over a disagreement about a matter of practice; distinct from heresy because the split is not over belief; the schism of 1054 marked the formal break between Roman Catholicism and the Greek Orthodox church; the Great Schism (1378-1414) was the split in the western church between those loyal to the pope at Rome and those loyal to the pope at Avignon; derived from the Greek word schisma, "split or tear".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)


Schultheiss:
Office of minor judge.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Germany


Scissor-Braces:
Crossed timbers usually halved at the crossing, bracing the rafters, in the form of a St Andrew's Cross.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Scot and Lot:
A traditional expression for borough dues; those paying scot and lot were normally householders paying their full dues and thus ranking as members of the town community.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Screens:
1) Wooden partition at the kitchen end of a hall, protecting a passage leading to buttery, pantry, and kitchen.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)

2) Wooden paritions at lower end of hall, separating the latter from the entry or service screens passage, a cross-passage which has hall entrances and doorways to pantry, buttery and kitchen passages.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Scutage:
1) The sum that the holder of a knight's fee may pay his lord in lieu of military service. Sometimes used as a form of tax.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Shield-tax, a tax paid in lieu of military service.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

3) Feudal payment in place of knight service in the field.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

4) Literally "shield-money"; a payment in lieu of military service, paid in respect of the knights which a tenant-in-chief owed to the Crown. The personal obligation to serve of the tenant-in-chief himself could not be discharged by scutage, but only by fine.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 636)


Scutiger: [scutarius]
A squire or esquire with special duties to the horses.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Sebastocrator: [Sevastocrator]
Second title after emperor, above caesar and below despot.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Secular Arm:
The jurisdiction and law officers of the crown.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)


Secular Canon:


Secular Clergy:
1) The clergy who were not separated from the world by a written rule or by life in a monastic community; it included the bishops and priests who worked with the laity; often contrasted to the regular clergy who lived under a rule; word derived from saeculum, "world".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

2) Any cleric who was not a regular, but lived under no rule and outside communities, in the world or in saeculo. The term applied to nearly all the parish clergy, most collegiate clergy and the canons of the secular cathedrals.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Sede Vacante:
Vacant see (or bishopric).
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


See:
The seat of a bishop, i.e. his bishopric.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Segment:
Branch of dynasty, often in open or latent competition with other branches.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Segmental Arch:


Segmental-Pointed Arch:


Seignorial Jurisdiction:
The right of a lord of a manor to hold a court for the tenants of the manor.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Seisin:
1) Legal possession of a property.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)

2) Possession (often contrasted with ownership) of land.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

3) The possession of land enjoyed by a person who is "seated" on the land, who is in a position to take what the land produces. Seisin of a freehold is occupation by one other than a tenant in villeinage, a tenant-at-will, a tenant for a term of years, or a guardian.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)

4) Feudal possession; the exercise and enjoyment of rights deriving from possession, usually of land, held as a freehold (but not as leasehold or a servile tenure). To be "in seisin" was to be "seized of" control of such an estate or other freehold rights. Livery of seisin (i.e., delivery of seisin by a grantor) was usually by some symbolic act. To be disseised was to be ousted from seisin.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 636)


Selion: [selions]
1) Narrow strip of arable land in an open field.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)

2) Plow strip.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)

3) A ridge or narrow strip lying between two furrows formed in dividing an open field.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)

4) The smallest operational unit for ploughing within the open arable fields; the bound of each were well known, with stones or other markers. The shape was long and narrow, with several selions to the acre: confusingly, selions were often called acres.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Semicircular Arch:


Seneschal: [Steward]
1) Manager of an estate or a household.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

2) Steward or chief officer of lord.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

Related terms: Steward


Serf:
1) A semi-free peasant who works his lord's demesne and pays him certain dues in return for the use of land, the possession (not ownership) of which is heritable. These dues, usually called corvée, are almost in the form of labor on the lord's land. Generally this averages to three days a week. Generally subdivided into classes called: cottagers, small holders, or villeins although the later originally meant a free peasant who was burdened with additional rents and services.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Slave; property of the lord.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

3) Peasant burdened with week-work, merchet, tallage, and other obligations; bondman, villein.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)


Sergeant:
1) A servant who accompanies his lord to battle, or a horseman of lower status used as light cavalry. Also means a type of tenure in service of a nonknightly character is owed a lord. Such persons might carry the lords banner, serve in the wine cellar, make bows/arrows or any other dozen occupations. Sergeants pay the feudal dues of wardship, marriage, and relief but are exempt from scutage (nonknightly).
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Mounted and armoured soldier below the rank of knight.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Sergeanty


Sergeant-at-Arms:
Member of a royal bodyguard.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)


Sergeanty:
1) A tenure in the Middle Ages; a freehold in return for which the tenant renders specified services or their monetary equivalent.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)

2) A form of feudal tenure on condition of rendering some specified personal service to the lord, but of a more lowly nature than the services performed by those who held by knight-service.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 636)

Related terms: Sergeant


Serjeant-at-Law:
A senior barrister.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)


Services:
A fixed sum due to the papacy from a prelate who had been provided to his see or abbacy.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 238)

Related terms: Annates


Setier:
Measure of capacity.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Sevast:
Title born by town governors appointed by Strez in Macedonia early in the thirteenth century.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Seven Kingdoms of the Heptarchy:


Sexpartite:
Consisting of six parts.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Vault, Sexpartite / Vaulting


Sexpartite Vault:


Shaft:
Slender column.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Shafted Jambs:
Jambs with one or more shafts engaged or detached, at the angle with the wall.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Jamb


Shaman:
A healer-priest who communicates with the spirit world, often in a trance. Such priests were found among medieval Balkan Vlachs.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Sheaf Arrow:
Heavy armour piercing arrow used by longbowmen at close range.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)


Shell Keep:


Sheriff:
1) The official who is the chief administrative and judicial officer of a shire. Many of its jobs where taken over by the itinerant justice, coroner, and justice of the peace. Collected taxes and forwarded them on to the exchequer, after taking his share. Also many times responsible for making sure that the Kings table is well stocked while king is in his county (I.e.. Royal Game Preserve).
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Royal official in charge of a shire or county.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

Related terms: Shrievalty


Sheriff's Farm:


Sheriff's Tourn:
See: Tourn


Shilling:
Measure of money used only for accounting purposes and equal to 12 pennies.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Shingle:
Wooden roofing tile, of cleft oak.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Shire:
English county. The shire court conduct the administrative, judicial and financial business of of people living in the county.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Shire Levy:
All able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60, called out in times of national crisis by the king.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)


Shouldered Arch:


Shrievalty:
Office of sheriff.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

Related terms: Sheriff


Shuttering:
Planking used, for example, to keep wet plaster in position until dry.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Side Purlin:


Siege:
The military tactic that involves the surrounding and isolation of a castle, town or army by another army until the trapped forces are starved into surrender.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Signification:
Letter from the bishop informing the chancery of the king that a person had been an unreconciled excommunicate for more than forty days and requesting the crown issue the writ de excommunicato capiendo for his arrest and imprisonment.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Signori:
Feudal lords, or local tyrants, in Italy.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)


Sillbeam:
Horizontal timber at the base of a building into which upright posts can be jointed.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Silva Cedua Tithes:
Strictly this referred to coppice wood not mature timber, but its precise application was much disputed.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Silvaticae equae:
Wild or forest mares, collections of which formed the earliest studs.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Simony:
1) The buying or selling of spiritual things, particularly church offices and benefice.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The buying or selling of sacred things, such as sacraments and ecclesiastical positions; owrd derived from Simon the Magician (Acts 8:18-24), who tried to buy spiritual power from St Peter.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)


Sinister:
Heraldic; on left side of shield, i.e. on spectator's right.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Dexter


Skew Arch:
See: Arch, Skew


Slit:
Narrow window for defence, deeply splayed wthin, to get maximum light.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Castle / Loop


Small Holder:
A middle class peasant, farming more land than a cottager but less than a villein. A typical small holder would have 10-20 acres.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Smithy:
A blacksmith's workshop where iron objects are forged as opposed to a smelting workshop where iron is extracted from the ore.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Socage Tenure:
The humblest of medieval freehold tenures; the tenant is commonly a free man, an agricultural worker, who owes to his lord money rent or clearly specified agricultural services such as ploughing or harvesting.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Soccida:
Livestock lease.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Italy
Related terms: Gasaille


Socherie:
Manufacture of ploughshares. Hence Sochier, maker of ploughshares.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Soffit:
Under-surface of arch, lintel, canopy, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Soffit Cusp:
Cusp springing from the flat soffit of an arched head, not from the chamfered side or edge (chamfer cusp).
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Sokalnik:
A category of dependent peasant in medieval Serbia.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Soke:
1) Land attached to a central manor for payment of dues and for judicial purposes. Often large units - perhaps of very ancient origin.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

2) In London, the estate within the city of a lord who retained some jurisdiction over his tenants.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)

Note: from soc (Old English) = jurisdiction
Related terms: Sake


Sokeman:
1) Another name for a free villager.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Freeman of peasant status who was free to leave (and often to sell) his land; often owing services or rent, and obliged to attend his lord's court.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)


Sol:
Silver or base metal coin (later known as sou) subdivided into 12 deniers.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Solar:
1) Originally a room above ground level, but commonly applied to the great chamber or a private sitting room off the great hall.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)

2) Private withdrawing room, usually on an upper floor.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 212)

3) Private room always on upper level, often the private bed-sittingroom of the owner and his family.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Note: sol (French) = floor, solive = beam
Related terms: Castle


Söldner:
All-but landless peasant.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)


Sole-Piece:
Short, horizontal timber lying across the wall-top, forming a base of small triangle sustaining the foot of a common rafter.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Soleplate:
Horizontal timber at the base of a framed construction.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 212)


Sollerets:
Articulated armour for feet.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)

Related terms: Armor


Solskift:
From the Scandinavian terms for "sun-division", and arrangement of holdings such that the order of houses along the village street(s) matched that of the householders' selions within each furlong of the open fields.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Sonipes:
A horse (a literary and poetical word).
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Cornipes


Sovereign:
Term applied to chief citizen of certain towns.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 145)


Sow:
1) Protective movable shed, enabling besiegers to approach close to a castle's walls.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

2) A mobile shelter used in siege warfare, with a strong timber roof and covered in damp hides to make it fireproof.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)


Spada: [spado]
A spayed horse or gelding.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Spahi: [Sipahi]
An Ottoman cavalryman who provided his service in exchange for a fief (a timar).
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Span:
Breadth of opening between imposts of arch, walls of room, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Spandrel:
Triangular space between the shoulder of an arch and its rectangular frame, or between a curved brace and tie-beam, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Spaudler:
Curved plate defence for the shoulder, divided into several lames for greater flexibility.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Armor


Special Bastardy:


Specie:
Coins.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Spere:
Barrier; short wooden screen projecting at side of doorway.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Spere-Truss


Spere-Truss:
The side-posts of the spere forming part of a roof truss, the middle part being commonly closed by a movable screen.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Spere


Spiritualities: [spiritualia (Latin)]
1) Ecclesiastical revenues, derived from tithes.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

2) Income or rights arising directly from the exercies of spiritual, sacramental or pastoral authority and duties.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)

Related terms: Temporalities


Springald:
War engine of the catapult type, employing tension.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 227)


Squinch:
Arch across an interior angle, e.g. of square tower as support for side of octagon.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Squint:
Opening in wall affording view into adjoining apartment.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Squire:
1) Knight-aspirant.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

2) Apprentice knight, aged between 13 and 21, classes as a man-at-arms in action.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 251)

Related terms: Esquire


Stalo:
A stallion.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Emissarius (equus) / Waranio


Stanchion:
Upright iron bar between mullions of window, screen, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Standards:
Trees that are allowed to grow up to full size before being harvested. In the medieval period a wood would consist of a mixture of coppice and standards. Viewed from above, about 70% of the land surface would be coppice, and about 30% standards.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)

Related terms: Coppice


Staple:
1) An official site for selling wool. The government decreed that wool could only be sold at certain locations in order to control the trade and to facilitate the collection of customs. Sites often changed as the objectives of royal policy changed.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) Market with monopoly for sale of goods, especially wool.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

3) A place with a monopoly of a particular trade, which must all pass through it. The Merchants of the Staple were the wool merchants trading through the wool staple (at Calais from 1363). Staple courts were established in 1353 with jurisdiction in mercantile cases in towns then designated as wool staples, and continued (generally in the same places) after the wool staple was moved to Calais.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Star Chamber:
Building erected next to the exchequer in Westminster where the royal council met, probably called that because stars were painted on the ceiling.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Statute:
A formal enactment of the highest dignity; it may be declaratory or interpretive of the law; it may also represent a deliberate change in the law.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Stecak: [stecci (pl.)]
Scholars' term for the unusual medieval gravestones found throughout Bosnia and Hercegovina. This term is preferable to the frequently used term Bogomil gravestone; for there is nothing Bogomil about the stones, which were erected by members of all denominations: Orthodox, Catholic, and Bosnian Church.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Steward:
The man responsible for running the day to day affairs of the castle in absence of the lord.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle / Seneschal


Stilted Arch:


Stinting:
Limiting, especially the rights of pasture.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)


Stoned Horse:
A stallion.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Stop:
Ornamental termination to a moudling or chamfer.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Stottus:
A cheap workhorse or plough horse.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Affer


Strategos: [strategoi (pl.)]
Greek for general; from the seventh century used specifically for the military commander of a theme (a military province). The strategos not only commanded the local troops but also more-or-less the governor of the province.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Stretcher:
Brick with side showing on wall face.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Bond / Header


Stringcourse:
A projecting horizontal band of masonry running around a building.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 212)


Strojnik: [strojnici (pl.)]
Member of the council that guided the djed, the leader of the Bosnian Church.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Strut:
Sloping timber supporting a beam, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)


Stud:
An establishment for the breeding of horses, now usually centred on a stallion (or stallions), but originally signifying a group of mares kept for breeding, the word being derived from the German die Stute (mare).
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)

Related terms: Equaricia / Haracium


Studs:
Intermediate posts between the main ones of a timber frame.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Close-Studding


Styca:
A Saxon copper coin of the ninth century.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Sub-Cusp:
Secondary cusp.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 415)

Related terms: Cusp


Sub-Tenant:
Free tenant holding land of intermediate lord rather than directly of king.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 145)


Subinfeudation:
A Western feudal practice by which a vassal of a superior lord could also have vassals of his own. In contrast, in the Orthodox lands all fiefs were held from the crown and all service was owed the ruler.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Subsidy:
1) A grant of taxation in form of a carucage, a tallage, or scutage; or on movables; or by customs duties.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

2) Also refers to taxation granted by the clergy or laity to the crown.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Suffragan Bishop:
Usually refers to the deputy who fulfilled the diocesan bishop's spiritual functions, such as ordination, consecration, confirmation, etc. Also used to designate the diocesan bishops of a province who were subject to the archbishop.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 368)


Suit:
Attendance.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 246)


Suit of Mill:
The obligation of tenants to resort to a special mill (usually that of their lord) to have their corn ground.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)


Suitor:
Person obliged to attend court.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)


Sulong:
A measurement of land in Kent. Equal to two "hides".
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Sultan:
Title of the Ottoman sovereign.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Summarius:
Anglicized as "sumpter", a packhorse.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)


Sumptuary Legislation:
Laws regulating expenditure on food and dress.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Sunk Chamfer:


Surcoat:
Long flowing garment worn over armour.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

Related terms: Armor


Survey:
Official list of the holdings of a manor.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 235)


Suzerain:
A feudal overlord. The king as suzerain was the highest feudal lord in the kingdom.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Syncretism:
A combining of differing beliefs from two or more religions.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)


Synod:
1) An ecclesiastical meeting; see definitions under "council"; word derived from Greek synodos, "a coming together".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

2) Ecclesiastical council.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 146)

Related terms: Synodik


Synodik:
A text presenting the decisions of a synod.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)

Related terms: Synod



[A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z]

----------

To help defray the costs of maintaining NetSERF, we have added these Google ads.

----------