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Rafters, Common:
The regularly spaced inclined timbers which support the roof covering.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Ram:
Battering-ram.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)


Rape:
The Sussex equivalent of a "hundred".
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Rayonnant:
Phase of French architecture corresponding to early bar-tracery.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 269)


Rear Arch:
Internal arch over door or window opening.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Rear-Vault


Rear-Vault:
Space between rear arch and outer stonework of window.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Rear Arch


Rebate:
Rectangular recess or groove cut longitudinally to receive a(nother) timber; e.g. recess in door jamb into which door fits.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Rebeck:
A musical instrument, having three strings, and played with a bow; an early form of the fiddle.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 339)


Recognition:
A declaration by jurors in medieval cases, commonly answering a question about which of two claimants has the better title, or right, in land.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Recognizance:
An obligation recorded before a court, or an officer authorized to keep such records, with a condition to do some act required by law which is specified within the record.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Rector:
1) The holder of a rectory.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)

2) Incumbent whose tithes have not been alienated.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)

Related terms: Rectory


Rectory:
The full income, endowments and office attached to the benefice of a parish church. Contrast vicarage.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)

Related terms: Rector


Reeve: [gerefa (Old English), praepositus, prepositus (Latin)]
1) A royal official, or a manor official appointed by the lord or elected by the peasants.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Manorial overseer, usually a villager elected by tenants of the manor.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

3) Officer responsible for the general management of a manor (usually selected from among the manor's tenants).
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

4) The lord's official on the manor who supervised labour dues and renders owed by peasants.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

5) Principal manorial official under the bailiff, always a villein.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)

6) The usual word for an O.E. official, including the scirgerefa (sheriff) and portgerefa (port reeve, town reeve); continued to be used in towns after the Norman Conquest (later sometimes interchangeable with "bailiff"), generally for the officials responsible for paying the king's or lord's dues.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 200)


Regalian:
Royal.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 231)


Regalian Right:
The king's customary right to enjoy the estates, lay income and the patronage - particularly ecclesiastical patronage - pertaining to a bishopric while vacant.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)


Regard:
A form of bonus, paid quarterly, the normal rate being 100 marks for the service of thirty men-at-arms.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)


Regular:


Regular Canon:


Regular Clergy:
Monks, canons, friars and other clergy who lived in communities under a rule; word derived from the Latin word regula, "rule"; often contrasted with the secular clergy, the bishops and priests who worked in the world.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 364)

Related terms: Religious / Regular


Relic:
An object venerated by believers because it was associated with a saint; a relic could be something owned by the saint, such as a piece of clothing or a book, but most often was a part of the saint's body.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

Related terms: Reliquary


Relief: [relevium]
1) The fee paid by the heir of a deceased person on securing possession of a fief. Tradition determines the amount demanded.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A fine paid by the heir of a vassal to the lord for the privilege of succeeding to an estate.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 231)

3) Payment due to a manorial lord upon inheritance.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

4) Payment to king or feudal lord on succession to property.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

Note: from relevare (Latin), to take up


Relieving Arch:


Religious:
When used as a noun, it is a general term to encompass any person bound to monastic life by vows; it could be used to describe a monk, a canon, a friar or a nun.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

Related terms: Regular Clergy


Reliquary:
A chest, box, or shrine, often elaborately decorated, in which a saint's relics were kept. Reliquaries were often the focal point of pilgrimages.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 365)

Related terms: Relic


Remedy:
A legal procedure used to enforce a right or to redress an injury.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Remembrancer:
Exchequer official who enrols memoranda "for remembrance".
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)


Rendering:
Plastering on the outside of a wall, often lime-washed.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Rental:
List of rents due from manorial tenants.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)


Rerebrace:
Plate defence for the upper arm.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)

Related terms: Armor


Reredorter:
Monastic latrine building.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Reservations:
The papal act of ear-marking specific benefices for future provisions.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 367)


Respond:
Half pillar or half pier attached to the wall to support an arch.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Retinue:
Small troop of fighting men of all types raised on the estate of a knight.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)


Retrochoir:
Space behind the altar.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 269)


Revetment:
Retaining wall of stone or timber of an earth bank or sides of a ditch.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Ribbed Vault:


Ribeaudequin: [Ribauldequin]
1) Cart mounting several small culverins discharged together.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 224)

2) Several small calibre cannon clamped on a wheeled platform to form a primitive quick-firing gun.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)

Related terms: Culverin


Ricasso:
Blunt part of a sword blade immediately above the crossguard.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 250)


Ridge Purlin:
Longitudinal timber at the apex of a roof, against which rest the upper ends of the rafters.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Ridge-and-Furrow:
Parallel bands of elevated ridges and depressed furrows created by ploughing the selion between the same limits year after year.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Ridge-Rib:
Longitudinal rib at the crown of a vault going the complete length of the vault.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 269)


Right of Asylum:


Right of Sanctuary:


Ring:
Unit of volume, four bushels.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)


Ringwork:
Embanked enclosure, generally circular in plan.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Rod:
Variable measurement, usually between 15 and 16.5 feet.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)


Roll:
1) Membranes (rotuli) of parchment stitched together to form a record.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

2) Document, comprising parchment sheets, stitched end to end or all together at the top.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)


Roll-Moulding:
Moulding of rounded section.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)


Romanesque:
The architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries in Europe, sometimes called Norman in England.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Romania:
Western term for the Byzantine (and also the Latin) Empire or its territory.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 625)


Romaniote Jews:
Members of the Greek-speaking Jewish communities of the Byzantine Empire.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 625)


Rota:
The main tribunal of the papacy.
   (Swanson. , 367)


Rouncey:
An ordinary horse.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)


Round Arch:


Row:
A morphologically distinct unit, in which the homesteads, tofts and crofts, are arranged in a regular line.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)


Royal Demesne:


Royal Free Chapel:
Among peculiar jurisdictions, deaneries not subject to episcopal jurisdictional authority in which the authority of the crown was (or had been until passed to others) paramount.
   (Swanson. , 367)


Rubble:
Rough walling of unsquared stone or flint.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Castle / Rubble, Coursed


Rubble, Coursed:
With stones very roughly dressed and levelled.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 414)

Related terms: Coursed Rubble / Rubble


Rule of Law:
A principle of the law; a ground of decision, recognized by the courts; a guiding principle in the determination of new cases.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 257)


Runcinus: [runcus]
In Domesday Book (1086) the rouncy appears to have been an agricultural workhorse, but at any rate from the thirteenth century it was an inexpensive (but not cheap) riding horse and the standard mount for an ordinary trooper in the Welsh war of Edward I. In these circumstances it is not surprising to find that the root of the word is connected with our generic term "horse". O.Fr. ronci, rous, ross, Ger. das Ross (horse), AS hors.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 137)



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