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Habergeon:
Mail coat, smaller than a hauberk.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Armor / Haubergeon / Hauberk


Hackney:
A type of horse of no great value.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Hajduk:
Serbian term for a brigand, often possessing positive - social bandit - connotations.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)

Related terms: Klepht


Haketon:
Leather jacket, probably reinforced with mail.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Armor


Halberd:
Axe-headed polearm, usually with a rear and top spike.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)

Related terms: Pole-Axe


Half-Timber:
The common form of medieval construction in which walls were made of a wood frame structure filled with wattle and daub.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Hall:
1) Principal living quarters of a medieval castle or house.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)

2) Principal room in a house. Open Hall, one on ground floor open to the roof. Upper End, high table end, furthest from entrance. Lower End, adjacent to entrance and service department.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)

Related terms: Castle


Hall Keep:
See: Castle


Hall-Church:
A church in which nave and aisles are of roughly the same height, i.e. having no triforium or clerestory.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 268)


Hallmote:
Manorial court.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)


Hammer-Beam:
Roof bracket projecting at wall plate level; a pair resemble a tie-beam with its centre omitted; there may be a second (and third) series of these above.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)


Hamsoken:
1) Housebreaking.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

2) Assault in the victim's own house.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)


Hand-and-a-Half Sword:
Large, double-edged sword with a long grip which could be wielded with either one or two hands.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)

Related terms: Two-Handed Sword


Hanse:
An association of merchants who have secured corporate exemption from tolls and other dues; in twelfth-century England sometimes used interchangeably with "merchant guild". By the later Middle Ages the German Hanse was a formal association of towns, as well as of merchants.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 199)

Related terms: Guild / Hanseatic League


Hanseatic League:
An association of merchants and towns of northern Germany.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Guild / Hanse


Haquenai: [hakene (Middle English)]
Though the modern Hackney has both Arab and Thoroughbred blood in its veins, the haquenai is recorded at least as early as 1300, more than three centuries earlier than the Thoroughbred. It was certainly a riding horse, usually small, and sometimes a pacing horse (see ambulatorius); often also a horse let out to hire. The Italian achinea refers simply to a quiet ordinary horse.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Language: French
Related terms: Ambulatorius (equus)


Haracium: [haras, haraz (French)]
A stud. Though there is unanimity as to the meaning of this word, its derivation has been much contested. [For more about this, see the cited work].
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Language: Latin
Related terms: Alfaracis / Stud


Haro:
Cry to a lord for rescue.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 223)


Haubergeon:
Shortened version of the hauberk, worn by both infantry and mounted men, those for the former usually having short sleeves.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)

Related terms: Armor / Hauberk / Habergeon


Hauberk:
1) Mail coat.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

2) Armour of chain mail in the shape of a tunic to protect the body.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

3) Mail shirt covering the body as far as the knees, the arms ending in mittens, and with a hood for the head.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 249)

Related terms: Armor / Haubergeon / Habergeon


Havoc:
The word announcing permission for troops to plunder.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 223)


Hay-Bote:
The right to take wood or thorns for the repair of fences granted to the peasant by the lord.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 338)

Related terms: Hous-Bote


Hayward: [Messor]
1) Manorial official in charge of the haies, or hedges.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

2) Lesser manorial official; assistant to reeve.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)

3) A manorial officer having charge of the enclosures, especially in haymaking or harvest times.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 338)


Header:
Brick with end showing on wall face.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Bond / Stretcher


Header Bond:


Headland:
Segment of land left at end of plow strips for turning plow around.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)


Heater Shield:
Semi-cylindrical shield with a flat top edge. The shield was about 95 cm. long in the first half of the fourteenth century but was shortened later in the century.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 249)

Related terms: Armor


Hedgehog:
A usually oval formation of several ranks of spearmen presenting a hedge of spear points to any attacker.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 249)

Related terms: Schiltron


Hellene:
Literally, "a Greek." The name was rejected by Greeks through most of the Middle Ages since it connoted a pagan.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)


Hengst: [hencgestas (Anglo-Saxon)]
A confusing term which can denote a stallion, a horse generally or a gelding. It is often impossible to decide which is intended.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Language: German


Heptarchy, Seven Kingdoms of the:
Names given to the seven pre-Viking Kingdoms of England. Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, East Anglia, Essex and Sussex.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Hercator: [hercerius, herzorius]
A harrowing horse.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Related terms: Occatorius


Herceg: [Herzog (German)]
A duke; the title was assumed by various rulers in the western Balkans in the fifteenth century.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)


Heresy:
Any religious doctrine inconsistent with, or inimical to, the orthodox beliefs of the church.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Heretic


Heretic:
A person who obstinately holds to a view that is contrary to one or more of the fundamental beliefs of the church; it is not mere error, but obstinate holding to the error when instructed by a properly constituted authority.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)

Related terms: Heresy


Heriot:
1) A payment which a feudal lord may claim from the possessions of a dead serf or other tenant, essentially a death tax. There are various forms of heriot. Generally if a tenant dies in battle the heriot is forgiven.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A death-duty to the lord; in the case of a villein on a manor, usually the best beast.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

3) Obligation of unfree families to give up the best ox or livestock or cash equivalent on the death of the tenant.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

Related terms: Buteil / Mortmain / Meilleur Catel / Mainmorte


Hermit:
A person who leaves society for religious motives; a solitary religious often contrasted to monks who lived in a community of some sort; the word is derived from the Greek word eremos, "desert", which was a favoured place for the withdrawal of eastern Mediterranean hermits.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)


Hesychasm:
A mystical movement whose members, called Hesychasts, through special practices achieved a vision of the Divine Light. Though the ideas and practices were much older, the term is often used specifically for the movement that achieved prominence in the fourteenth century.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)

Related terms: Hesychast


Hesychast:
Someone who practiced the spiritual practices of hesychasm.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)

Related terms: Hesychasm


Heushire:
House rent.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)


Hexamilion:
The wall built across the Isthmus of Corinth to stop would-be invaders of the Peloponnesus.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)


Hidage:
Document containing assessment of land, shires or towns, drawn up in hides.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)


Hide:
1) A unit of measurement for assessment of tax, theoretically 120 acres, although it may vary between 60 and 240 acres. It is by custom the land that can be cultivated by one eight ox plow in one year.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Originally the land necessary to sustain a peasant household. Sometimes reckoned at 120 acres but in fact the hide varied according to locality, date, and government needs.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

3) An Anglo-Saxon term still used in many parts of the country, and commonly at this period as a measurement of land, roughly equivalent to the carucate, but more properly a unit of assessment, e.g., to taxation.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 635)

Related terms: Hundred / Wapentake


High Farming:
Practice of landlords whereby demesne lands were kept in hand, cultivated with wage or unfree labour, and the produce consumed or sold for profit.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

Related terms: Demesne


Hipped Gable:
Gable with small hipped end above.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)

Related terms: Gabled Hip / Gable


Hiza:
Literally, "a house"; a residence for Bosnian Church clerics.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)


Hoardings:
Wooden galleries erected on the face of a castle's battlements to enable the defenders to fire on men attacking the base of the wall.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 249)

Related terms: Castle / Hoards


Hoards: [Hourds, Brattices]
Covered wooden galleries supported on brackets at the top of a castle wall to defne its base through openings in the gallery floor.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)

Related terms: Castle / Hoardings


Hobelar:
1) Lightly armed cavalrymen, Irish in origin. First appeared in Edward I's reign in his Scottish wars.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 348)

2) Light horseman armed with knife, sword, and lance. Hobelars were used for reconnoitring and combat, in which they dismounted to fight with the infantry.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

Related terms: Hobilar / Hobilarius


Hobilar:
Unarmoured spearmen or archers mounted on a poor breed of horse and used as scouts and despatch riders.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 249)

Related terms: Hobilarius / Hobelar


Hobilarius:
A light horseman, or a hobelar.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Related terms: Hobelar / Hobilar / Hobyn


Hobyn: [hobi, hobin]
A hobby - a small horse or middle-sized pony from Ireland, introduced into England and Scotland towards the end of the thirteenth century. By the fifteenth century the term sometimes denoted a small pacing horse or ambler. (see ambulatorius).
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)

Related terms: Hobilarius


Hock Day:
The second Tuesday after Easter Sunday; in former times an important term-day, on which rents were paid, Hock-day and Michaelmas dividing the rural year into its summer and winter halves.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 338)


Hogget:
A yearling sheep.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)

Related terms: Ewe / Wether


Hollow Chamfer:


Holy Orders: [Major Orders]
Subdeacon, deacon and priest, to whom marriage was forbidden.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 363)

Related terms: Minor Orders / Orders


Homage:
1) The ceremony by which a vassal pledges his fealty to his liege, and acknowledges all other feudal obligations, in return for a grant of land.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Acknowledgement by feudal tenant in return for his land that he is his lord's man (homme).
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

3) A ceremony by which a man acknowledges himself to be the vassal of a lord; an act showing respect and deference, usually a preliminary step in the procedure by which a lord grants a fief to a vassal.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 256)


Hommes de Maisnie:
Men of the household.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Related terms: Mesnie


Hommes de Queste:
See: Questaux


Hongre: [cheval hongre (French)]
A gelding.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 136)


Honor:
1) A holding or group of holdings forming a large estate, such as the land held by an Earl.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Great estate of a tenant-in-chief.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

3) Scattered manors held by or under one lord.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

4) A technical term for the group of estates from which the greater tenants-in-chief of the Crown derived their prestige and status of honour. A superior lordship upon which inferior lordships were dependent.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 635)

Note: from Latin honor


Hood:
Canopy of stone or timber and plaster over the fireplace to collect and conduct smoke to its flue.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)


Hoodmould: [Label, Dripstone]
Projecting moulding on the wall over a window or doorway, either following the shape of the arch, or square in outline.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)


Horse, Barded:
Horse equipped with a covering, usually cloth over thick padding, or armour.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Barded Horse


Hospitallers:
The Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem. A Catholic military order.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)

Related terms: Knight Hospitaller


Host: [ost]
1) Feudal military service in the lord's army.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

2) The consecrated bread of the mass.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 363)


Hotel:
At first denoted the town house of a nobleman.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 412)


Hôtise:
Measured parcel of settler's land attached to the house.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Ile de France


Hous-Bote:
The right of a tenant to take wood from his lord's estate for the repair of his house.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 338)

Related terms: Hay-Bote


Housesteads:
Housesteads are forts strategically placed on a craggy precipice.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Howden:
A college of secular priests.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: College


Hue and Cry:
1) The requirement of all members of a village to pursue a criminal with horn and voice. It is a duty of any person discovering a felony to raise the hue and cry and his neighbors are bound to assist him in pursuit and capture of the offender.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Outcry alerting others to pursue a criminal.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

3) Noisy pursuit of criminals, as a legal duty falling upon local communities.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

4) Criminal apprehension system by which all within earshot were required to give chase to the malefactor.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)


Hufe:
Measured parcel of settler's land attached to house.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 555)

Location: Germany


Hundred:
1) Anglo Saxon institution. Subdivision of a shire. Theoretically equals one hundred hides but hardly ever. Generally has their own court which meets monthly to handle civil and criminal law. In Danish is called a wapentakes (weapons taking?).
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Subdivision of the shire based on groups of estates adding up to 100 hides: probably artifically imposed in Midlands 900-939, but in the south based on older units.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214)

3) An administrative sub-division of the shire, embracing several vills, and having a court to which men of the hundred owed suit at regular intervals.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 635)

Related terms: Hide


Hurdle:
A portable rectangular wooden frame, strengthened with wattles, and used at Wharram to strengthen the mill dam.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 137)


Hussites:
The followers of John Hus; considered heretics by the Catholic Church. Though their center was in Bohemia, some of them were to be found in the northern Balkans, particularly in Srem.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 623)


Husting:
The chief court of London.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 199)



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