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Earl:
1) The highest title attainable by an English nobleman who is not of royal blood. Word related to Jarl.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Count; highest English title in the Middle Ages.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)


Easter:
The religious celebration of Christ's resurrection, held on the first Sunday after the first full moon on or after 21 March. It was the oldest and greatest annual Christian religious feast.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)


Eaves:
Overhanging edge of roof.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Echelon:
Units of an army regularly stepped back and to one side of the one in front.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)


Ecumenical:
An adjective meaning "universal", derived from the Greek word oikoumene, "the inhabited world" or "the whole world".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)


Eire:
Irish for Ireland.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Location: Ireland


Eleutheroi:
In the Byzantine Empire, term used for rural persons not bound to the soil. Literally, a "free man".
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Elliptical Arch:


Embrasure:
1) Splayed opening in a battlement or rampart for shooting; also the splayed opening of a window.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 268)

2) Opening in battlemented parapet, recess for window or doorway.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

3) The low segment of the altering high and low segments of a battlement.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Emir:
A prince or ruler of an Islamic territory, or emirate.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Emissarius (equus):
A stallion (a horse which emits); a term used mainly from the fourth to the ninth centuries on the Continent, but found occasionally in England from the twelfth to fourteenth centuries.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)

Related terms: Stalo / Waranio


Enceinte:
An enclosing wall, usually exterior, of a fortified place.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)

Related terms: Castle


English Bond:


English Bond Garden-Wall:


Englishry:
A fine paid by a hundred for an unknown homicide. After the Conquest, Normans were sometimes ambushed and slain by the English. The hundred were the body was found would be fined unless they could prove that the victim was English.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Entrage:
Entry fee.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Entry Fine:
Payment, set at the lord's discretion, by an unfree heir, heiress, or purchaser on entering an unfree tenement.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Entsiedlung:
Contraction in the occupation of the soil.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Equaricia:
A stud.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)

Related terms: Stud


Equilateral Arch:


Equity:
1) Rules supplementary to common law and administered usually in chancery.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

2) The body of rules administered in a court of equity or Chancery, supplementing the common law.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 256)

Related terms: Common Law


Erse:
Irish Language.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Escalade:
Scaling of a castle wall.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 226)


Escheat:
1) The right of a feudal lord to the return of lands held by his vassal, or the holding of a serf, should either die with out lawful heirs or suffer outlawry.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Reversion of property to feudal lord or Crown upon default of heir or upon conviction of treason or felony.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

3) The reversion to a lord of a fief for default of heirs or the outlawry of the holders.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 633)

Related terms: Escheator


Escheator:
The royal official responsible for holding inquests on the deaths of tenants-in-chief to determine who should inherit the property and taking custody of any lands coming into the king's custody because of the minority of heirs or the vacancy of a bishopric or monastery. Escheators also conducted inquests into the alienation of lands held of the king and lands granted to the church without royal permission.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

Related terms: Escheat


Espringale:
Medieval term for the Roman ballista, a small engine for throwing spears or stones by means of tension and a large bow stave.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)


Esquire:
See: Squire


Essoin:
1) Excuse for non-attendance in court, or delay permitted a defendant.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)

2) The allegation of an excuse for non-attendance at a court at the appointed time.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)

3) An excuse tendered by or on behalf of one who is summoned to appear in court to perform suit or answer to an action, by reason of sickness or infirmity, or other allowable cause of absence.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 634)

Related terms: Essoiner


Essoiner:
Person presenting another's excuse for failure to attend court.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

Related terms: Essoin


Estate:
The nature and extent of one's interest in land.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 256)


Estate Tail:
An interest in land; can descend to bodily heirs only.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 256)


Estates:
Consultative assembly of representatives of the three estates of nobles, clergy and bourgeois.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Estoc:
Long, stiff and sharply-pointed sword for thrusting at the joints in plate armour, first introduced in the second half of the fourteenth century.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)


Eucharist:
The sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the mass; or the consecrated bread and wine; derived from a Greek word meaning "to give thanks".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)


Evangelical:
Adjective meaning "pertaining to the gospels"; derived from the Greek word euangelion, "good news", which was an early Christian description of their message and a term for the books - gospels - in which that message was recorded.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)


Ewe:
Female sheep.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 138)

Related terms: Hogget / Wether


Ex Officio Proceedings:
In effect prosecution in the church courts by the authorities for some offence against church discipline; contrast instance causes.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 363)

Related terms: Instance Causes


Exchequer:
1) The financial department of the royal government. The chief officers of the Exchequer are the Treasurer, the Chancellor and the Justiciar. Sheriffs, in their role as regional chief accountants, present reports to the exchequer at Easter and Michaelmas.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A) Department for receiving and auditing Crown revenues; B) Court of law, dealing particularly with actions involving such revenues.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

Related terms: Checker / Chamber


Excommunication:
1) Exclusion from the membership of the church or from communion with faithful Christians. Those judged "tolerati" may still mingle with the faithful, but those "vitandi" cannot and are exiled.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The formal suspension or expulsion of a person from the communion of the church; in the Middle Ages, excommunication had serious social and legal consequences.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 362)

3) Exclusion from communion of Church as method of enforcing jusdgements of church courts.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

4) A sentence (in various forms and different degrees), pronounced in a court or by a bishop, which excluded the offenders to whom it applied from the sacraments and church services, or in the case of greater excommunication from law and society, until absolution was granted.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 362)


Extent:
1) Survey and valuation of property, made by its lord or by the royal government.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

2) Document enumerating lands, services, and rents of a manor.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)

3) The formal recitation and valuation of the various lands of a manor, and also of the services, rents, profits, etc. of the same.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)


Eyre:
1) The right of the king (or justices acting in his name) to visit and inspect the holdings of any vassal. This is done periodically, usually at irregular intervals of a few years.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) English circuit court.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

3) From the Latin iter, a journey; usually applied to circuit of royal judges.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

4) A periodic visitation of a county or group of counties by the king's court.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

5) A travelling court of royal justices, periodically sent round the country in circuits to enquire into royal administration and to hear both civil and criminal cases.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)

Note: in itinere (Latin) = on a journey



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