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Cabacete:
A tall narrow helmet, with a turned-down brim which was drawn up to a point at front and rear, worn by Spanish infantry in the late fifteenth century.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Caballus:
In Classical Latin this word denoted an inferior riding horse or even a packhorse, but from the sixth to the tenth or eleventh centuries it denoted a good horse, usually a warhorse. In Southern France and Spain it retained this meaning, but in North-Western Europe, Italy and Germany it was superseded by other words such as equus or destrier. It is rarely found in England at all. From it are derived the normal words for "horse", "knight" and "chivalry" in French, Italian and Spanish (e.g. cheval, chevalier, chevalerie and cavallo, cavaliere, cavalleria). The English words "cavalier" and "chivalry" are derived not direclty from the Latin but from the Italian and French respectively, occuring first in 1560 and c. 1590.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)


Cadaster:
A tax register listing population on, ownership of, and extent of land.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Caernarvon Arch:


Caesar:
The second title (after emperor) in the Byzantine Empire until the late eleventh century. Then it was eclipsed by new titles, first sebastocrator and then by despot, and thus fell to fourth place.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Caltrop: [calthrop]
1) A small spiked device, intended to impede horses.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

2) Small metal ball with four (angled) projecting spikes placed on battlefield to maim horses.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Cambered beam:
With slight curve, the centre higher than the ends.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Camera:
Chamber, private bed-sittingroom.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Canon:
A church law or decree incorporated into the body of church law.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)

Note: Secular canons were also known as canons.
Related terms: Canon Law / Canon Lawyer


Canon (New Testament):
The list of books accepted by the church as scripture; the accepted list of twenty-seven items in the New Testament was worked out between the second and the fourth centuries.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Canon Law:
1) The body of rules governing the faith, morals and organization of the church.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)

2) A body of rules administered by courts of the Church.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 255)

Related terms: Canon Lawyer / Canon / Decretal / Decretum


Canon Lawyer:
A student of, or graduate in, canon law and often a practitioner in the church courts.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)

Related terms: Canon / Canon Law / Proctor


Canon, Regular:
A clerk who was not a monk but who lived in a community governed by a rule and belonged to one of the religious orders of canon regulars.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)

Related terms: Regular Canon / Secular Canon


Canon, Secular:
1) A clergyman who belonged to a cathedral chapter or collegiate church. Those who observed a written rule, often the Rule of St Augustine, were called regular canons. Those who held personal property and lived in their own houses were called secular canons.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)

2) A prebendary of a cathedral or collegiate church.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)

Related terms: Secular Canon


Canopy:
Suspended covering over high table, roof-like projection over a niche, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Canton:
Small division of territory in Switzerland, similar to the English parish.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Cantred:
Name applied by Anglo-Normans (usually when making grants of land) to pre-existing territorial units; later used of administrative divisions of certain counties in Ireland.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

Related terms: Barony


Cantref:
A Welsh political and administrative division, similar to English shires.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Cap-à-Pied:
From head to foot.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Caparison:
Fabric or leather horse covering reaching to the fetlocks and ususlly entirely covering the animal except for openings for eyes and muzzle.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Capitular:
Relating to a chapter.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)


Captal:
Gascon title for captain of a castle.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Cardinal Virtues:
Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude and Justice.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Carectarius: [carettarius]
A carthorse.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)


Carrack:
Large square rigged sailing vessel of Genoese origin, clinker built.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Cartulary:
The record of a landowner's (usually monastic) possessions in book form.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 136)


Carucage:
Tax on ploughland.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

Related terms: Carucate


Carucate:
1) A measurement of land, equal to a hide (used in Danelaw)
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Danish equivalent of a hide. The land ploughed by eight oxen; actual area varied locally and like the hide could be reassessed.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

3) A "plough-land"; a measurement of land, notionally as much land as could be kept under the plough in one years by a plough-team of eight oxen. The amount of land so described varied in different parts of the country between 60 and 120 acres.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 633)

Note: from caruca, a plough
Related terms: Carucage


Casal:
Measured parcel of settlers' land attached to house.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: Aquitaine


Casement Moulding:
A wide hollow.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Casés:
Domestic servants housed in their own cabins.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Castellan:
1) Governor of a castle.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

2) A captain of a castle. For example, a Catalan castellan commanded/held a castle of second rank.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)

Related terms: Castle


Castle:
Medieval fortification.
   (None. None)


Castle-Guard:
Feudal obligation to serve in the garrison of a castle, either for a period each year or during war.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

Related terms: Castle


Cat:
1) Assault tower.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

2) Stout, rectangular shed with open sides, mounted on wooden wheels, used to provide cover for men using rams, picks and similar weapons against the masonry of a fortification.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Catapult:
Stone-throwing engine, usually employing torsion.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)


Cathars:
Dualist heretics active in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, mostly in southern France; the word derives from the Greek word catharos, "pure".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)

Related terms: Albigensians


Cathedral Church:
The church of the diocese where a bishop has the throne (cathedra) and where he presides. Simplified to Cathedral.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Catholic Church:
Derived from the Greek word catholicos, "universal"; adpoted in the second century by one group of Christians to distinguish themselves from their rivals, particularly the gnostic Christians; more generally, "Catholic" describes those Christian groups which accept the ancient creeds, including Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Catslide:
Long slope of roof continued over a lean-to, e.g. aisle or outshut.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Catzurius: [cazorius, chazurius]
A hunter, or horse for the chase; used in England from the end of the twelfth century.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)

Related terms: Cursarius


Cavalcade:


Cavetto:
Concave or hollow moulding.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Note: cavus (Latin) = hollow


Celibacy:
The state of being unmarried; required of western clergy in the major orders (bishop, priest, deacon, subdeacon) since the twelfth century.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Cellar:
Room, often for storage, on ground floor or partly underground. Basement.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Undercroft


Cellarer:
Official of a monastery responsible for food supplies.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)


Censives:
Rent-paying lands, hence terre censales.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Censuarius:
Tenant ad censum.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)


Centering:
Temporary framework to support arch or vault during construction.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Cerevelliere:
Simple, globular steel cap originally worn under the coif and helm as an additional protection for the head, but evolving into the bascinet at the beginning of the fourteenth century.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Cesspit:
The opening in a wall in which the waste from one or more garderobes was collected.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Chamber:
Part of the king's household which dealt with his expenditure.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

Related terms: Checker / Chamberlain / Exchequer


Chamberlain:
1) An officer of the royal household. He is responsible for the Chamber, meaning that he controls access to the person of the King. He is also responsible for administration of the household and the privates estates of the king. The Chamberlain is one of the four main officers of the court, the others being the Chancellor, the Justiciar, and the Treasurer.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Household official in charge of the lord's chamber.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

Related terms: Chamber


Chambres des Comptes:
Accounting office for French royal finances at Paris or for Norman ducal finances at Caen.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Chamfer:
1) Surface created by removing a square edge obliquely.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

2) Bevel, plane formed by cut-off angle.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Chamfer Cusp:
Cusps springing from the chamfered side or edge of an arched head (not the soffit, for which see soffit cusp.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Chamfer / Chamfer, Sunk / Chamfer, Hollow / Cusp


Chamfer, Hollow:
Concave rounded chamfer.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Chamfer, Sunk:
Plane of chamfer sunk below its edges.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Chamfer Cusp / Chamfer, Hollow / Chamfer


Champart:
Levy of 4th, 9th or 12th sheaf of the harvest.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: N. France


Champerty:
A procedure by which a person having no legal concern in a suit promises aid or influence to one party in return for a share of the matter in the suit, if successful; usually linked with maintenance.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 255)


Champion:
Officer charged with defending his lord's cause in trial by battle.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Chancellor:
The officer of the royal household who serves as the monarch's secretary or notary. The chancellor is responsible for the Chancery, the arms of the royal government dealing with domestic and foreign affairs. Usually the person filling this office is a bishop chosen for his knowledge of the law.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Chancery / Chaplain


Chancery:
Part of the king's household and responsible for writing his writs and other instruments of government.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

Related terms: Chancellor


Chanfron:
Armour for a horse's head.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Chantry:
1) An institution, often endowed by will or supported by subscriptions through a guild, to pay for the regular saying of masses for the souls of the founder(s) and of friends and relations.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

2) Endowments of masses, or of chaplains to say masses, for the souls of deceased testors and their nominees.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)


Chapel of Ease:
A subsidiary chapel of a mother church founded to ease the difficulties of parishioners in worshipping, especially where the parish was very large.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 237)


Chaplain:
Priest or monk in charge of the chapel and of the secretarial department of the castle.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

Related terms: Chancellor


Chapter:
The governing body of an ecclesiastical corporation, whether monsatic community or cathedral clergy.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)


Charter:
Official document, usually deed or grant of privilege.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)

Related terms: Charter of Franchise


Charter of Franchise:
Documents granting liberty to a serf by his lord. The term also applies to the freedom granted to the inhabitants of a town or borough. the issue of a Charter of Franchise frees the town from servitude to feudal lords.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Charter / Franchise


Chartophylax:
Keeper of archives and/or general secretary (or chancellor) of a bishop in the Orthodox Church.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Châtelet:
Principal criminal court at Paris.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Chattels:
Movable goods, personal property.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 255)


Chattels Real:
Interests in land less than freehold.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 255)


Checker:
Accounts department.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Chamber / Exchequer


Chemise:
Inner walled enclosure of a castle.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

Related terms: Castle


Chevage:
1) Payment, typically in kind, owed annually by villein living outside the manor.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)

2) An annual payment made to a lord by each of his unfree tenants.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)

3) Poll tax, or personal charge due from dependants.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Chevauchée:
1) Feudal duty to accompany the lord on a minor expedition or as an escort.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

2) Mounted raid into hostile territory.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

3) Fast-moving campaign, inflicting damage on countryside, partly in the hope of obtaining the allegiance of its inhabitants.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Chevaux-de-Frise:
Plank or beam covered with iron spikes projecting at all angles, originally designed as a defence against cavalry.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Chevron:
Zigzag ornamental moulding of the 12th century.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Chrism:
A mixture of oil and balm, used for sacramental rituals, and distributed annually among the churches. The receipt of chrism from a particular authority reflected a jurisdictional relationship between the issuer and the recipient church.
   (Swanson. , 366)


Christendom:
The collective name for those territories inhabited primarily by Christians.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Cinque Ports:
Originally "Five Ports" like Sandwich on the southeast coast of England with special privileges.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Cinquefoil: [quinque folium (Latin), cinque feuilles (French)]
Five-leaved.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Foil


Circumspecte Agatis:
First word of a writ of 1286, later regarded as a statute, which defined some boundaries between ecclesiastical and secular jurisdiction.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)


Cistercians:
A variety of Benedictine monks, who appeared as a reform movement in 1098 and flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; they advocated a return to the strict, literal observance of Benedict's Rule; name derives from Cîteaux, the first monastery of the order; also called white monks because of the undyed wool in their garments.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)

Related terms: Benedictine Order


Cistern:
Storage tank for water.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)


Citizen: [civis (Latin)]
Used in a sense corresponding to burgess for the inhabitants of towns known as cities (L. civitates).
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)


City:
See: Civitas


Civitas: [civitates (pl.)]
A unit of government in the Roman empire, comprising not only the central settlement, probably more or less urban, but the surrounding territory, with its other settlements: e.g. civitas of the Cantiaci (roughly the later Kent). In the Middle Ages, a town of high status, usually fortified, and often of Roman origin or possessing a cathedral.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Language: Latin
Related terms: City


Clapboarding:
A series of vertical boards set up on a sill, each tongued on one edge, grooved on the other, to fit into its neighbor. A term still used in the U.S.A., but the boards are there set horizontally.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Clerestorey:
Upper storey pierced by windows rising clear above adjoining parts (e.g. aisles) of a building.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Clergy:
1) Term used to include all members of religious orders. The clergy are generally exempt from jurisdiction of civil courts as well as from military service.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) A collective term for men having any of the holy orders of the Christian church, as distinguished from the unordained members of the church, who were called the laity.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Cloister:
Covered way round open space or garth; quadrangle.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Close:
Enclosed field or area.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)


Close-Helmet:
Round-topped helmet attached to neck armour.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Close-Studding:
Walling of timber posts set little more than their own width apart, with plastered panels between.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Studs


Clunch:
Hard chalk used for building.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Cluny:
A monastery in Burgundy founded in 909; famous for its magnificent liturgy; during the eleventh century Cluny became the head of the first monastic order, with hundreds of monasteries all over Europe.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Cnihta: [cnihtan (pl.)]
The word from which the later "knight" is derived, but with humbler and less military connotations than it had later in the Middle Ages.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)

Language: Old English


Cob:
1) Wall made of unburnt clay mixed with straw.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

2) A short-legged, stout type of horse for riding, Not a special breed, nor a technical term before the nineteenth century.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)


Cog:
1) A type of substantial sailing ship.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

2) Main type of square-rigged sailing vessel in use in north European waters, clinker built.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Coif:
Mail hood covering the head.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Colée: [Buffet]
Traditional blow administered to the newly made knight at his dubbing.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)

Related terms: Buffet


Collar Purlin:


Collar-Beam:
Horizontal beam tying together a pair of truss blades, or rafters, usually at or about half way up their length. There may be one to three collars to each pair.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Collate: [Collation]
The episcopal act of appointing to a benefice where the bishop was, or was acting as or for, the patron.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)


College:
An ecclesiastical corporation having its own legal identity; not applicable to monastic houses, but it does embrace academic - which were then ecclesiastical - communities.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 360)

Related terms: Howden


Coloni:
Peasant farmers, free and semi-free, in the later Roman Empire.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)


Column: [columna (Latin)]
Vertical support to arch, consisting of base, circular or octagonal shaft, and capital.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Column Figure:
Sculptured figure placed against, or taking the place of, a shaft on a portal.
   (Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art, 268)


Common Bench:
Court of common law, stationed at Westminster, to hear "common pleas", i.e., actions between private individuals.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Common Council:
A lower, or outer, town council in the later Middle Ages, or the inner and outer councils meeting together.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)


Common Law:
1) The term referring to the legal procedures that are becoming universal.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Law, originally unwritten, administered in royal courts, as distinct from local customary law, statute, or equity.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

Related terms: Equity


Common Pleas:
Legal cases concerning private rights, as distinct from criminal pleas.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Common Rafters:


Commune: [communio, communia, communa (Latin)]
A derivative of communitas used particularly in the twelfth century for a sworn association of townspeople, often led by a mayor, which campaigned for corporate liberties. Not thereafter much used in England, though see communitas.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)


Commune Concilium:
Norman equivalent of Anglo Saxon witan. Decision taken at such meetings, either judicial or military, are binding on the vassals.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Communiarii:
Commoners.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)

Language: Latin


Communitas: [communitates (pl.)]
Used to describe many affective associations including towns in their corporate characters, though not with any very exact meaning before the late Middle Ages when charters, later described as charters of incorporation, used the word communitas (later translated corporation).
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)

Language: Latin


Compagnie d'Ordonnance du Roi:
Company of 500 mounted men, 15 of which were formed by the king of France in 1445 to provide a standing army.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Compagnie di Ventura:
Company of fortune; a band of mercenaries.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Complant: [méplant]
Contract between lord and tenant to create a new vineyard.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Related terms: Meplant


Compurgation:
The process of establishing innocence, or failing to, in an ecclesiastical court, whereby six or usually a dozen men swear to the truth of the accused's assertion of innocence.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Comuni:
A free city of northern Italy.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Concentric Castle:
A castle with at least two circuits of walls, one inside the other, the outer wall lower than the inner one so that archers on the latter could fire over the heads of the men on the outer wall.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)

Related terms: Castle


Conciliarism:
The doctrine that the supreme authority in the church is vested in a general or ecumenical council; conciliarism was extremely influential during and after the Great Schism (1378-1414), especially at the Councils of Constance (1414-18), and Basel (1431-49).
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Condemine:
Demesne furlong, arable.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: Burgundy


Condottiero:
Captain of a Compagnie di Ventura.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Confession:
The public or private acknowledgment of sinfulness regarded as necessary to obtain divine forgiveness.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Congé d'Élire:
The royal licence permitting a cathedral chapter to elect a bishop; monastic houses which claimed the king as their patron or held their land directly from him, in return for a now national feudal service, were also obliged to seek this licence before they elected their superior.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Conroi:
Squadron or detachment of cavalry.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Constable:
The title of an officer given command of an army or an important garrison. Also the officer who commands in the king's absence.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Constitutions:
Ordinances.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Consultation:
A writ which quashed prohibitions and allowed the church court to resume hearing the case.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Contumacy:
Defiance of, or failure (when summoned) to appear in, an ecclesiastical court.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Conversus:
A) A person who entered a monastery as an adult, in contrast to an oblate who entered as a child; or B) a lay brother in a monastery.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Conveyance:
Transfer of property.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)


Convocation:
Synod of clergy of province of Canterbury or York.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Coppice:
The system of repeatedly cutting back a woody plant every 6-20 years. The part which remains permanently is the coppice stool. From this coppice stool grow poles, from between about three and eight in number. These economic poles are the product, and are used for fencing, simple furniture, small timber for building, tool handles, etc.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 136)

Related terms: Standards


Coram Rege:
A) Taking place "before the king" in his actual or fictitious presence; B) court of king's bench.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Corbel:
1) A stone or timber bracket supporting a projection from a wall.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

2) Projecting stone used to support a timber beam or joint of a roof or floor.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

Related terms: Castle


Cornice:
Horizontal moulded projection uppermost on a wall fireplace, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Cornipes:
A horse (a very literary word, used by chroniclers such as Orderic Vitalis).
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)

Related terms: Sonipes


Corrody:
1) Provision of an annual allowance of food, accommodation, and money (or a combination) to non-members of a religious house or hospital. Usually granted in return for service, or at the nomination of the king, or by purchase.
   (Swanson. , 366)

2) A lifetime payment of food and clothing by a religious house to an individual and sometimes to his wife and children as well.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

3) Old age pension, usually purchasable from a monastery, consisting of lodging, food, and incidentals.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)

4) In effect board and lodging sold or granted by a religious house to laymen and women.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Corvée:
Labor owed by a serf to his landowner.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Cottager:
A peasant of lower class, with a cottage, but with little or no land.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Cottars


Cottars: [cotter]
1) Lowest of the main levels of peasant cultivators at Domesday; "cottagers" with 4 acres or less.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

2) Smallholder (usually no more than a cottage and five acres of land).
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

Related terms: Cottager


Couchants et Levants:
Burgundian peasants bound to the soil.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Councils:
Ecclesiastical meetings of several sorts, including a) a meeting of bishops with their archbishop or metropolitan, called a provincial council; b) a meeting of a bishop with his diocesan clergy, called a diocesan synod; c) a meeting of all (at least in theory) bishops under the emperor or the pope, called an ecumenical council; almost a synonym for "synod".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Count:
The continental equivalent of the English earl. Ranks second only to Duke.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Count Palatine:
In Hungary, the highest court official after the king, who served in place of an absent king.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)

Related terms: Palatinate


County:
The English Shire.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


County Palatine:
See: Palatinate


Coursed Rubble:


Court Leet:
1) A hundred court in private hands, where the lord had the right to conduct the sheriff's tourn.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)

2) A court held periodically in a lordship or manor, before the lord or his steward, having jurisdiction over petty offences and the civil affairs of the district.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)


Court of Common Pleas:
A common law court to hear pleas involving disputes between individuals. Almost all civil litigation is within its term of reference, as is supervision of manorial and local courts.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Courts Christian:
The church courts of all kinds.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Couter:
Cup-shaped defence for the elbow.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)

Related terms: Armor


Coutumier: [censier-coutumier]
Seigneurial inventory recording rents and customs.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Related terms: Weistum


Coûture:
Demesne furlong, arable.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Cove: [coving]
Concave under-surface.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Craft: [mistery; misteria, mestera, officium (Latin)]
An industry or trade generally involving particular skills transmitted through apprenticeship under a master of the craft. By the later Middle Ages crafts were normally regulated, under municipal supervision, by their leading practitioners, who might be united in a guild: hence the modern usage, "craft guild".
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)

Related terms: Mistery


Crannog:
An Irish dwelling residing on a natural or man-made island.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Creed:
A brief formal statement of belief; the most famous were the Apostles' Creed, the Athanasian Creed and the Nicene Creed.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Crenel:
Open space in embattled parapet, for shooting through.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Crenelation:
A notched battlement made up of alternate crenels (openings) and merlons (square sawteeth).
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)


Crenellate:
Furnish with battlements.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Crenellate, Licence to:
Royal permit to furnish with battlements, i.e. to fortify.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Crest:
Heraldic device worn on helm.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Cresting:
Ornamental finish surmounting screen, battlements, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Crinet:
Laminated plate defence for a horse's neck.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Crockets:
Projecting carved leaves or flowers decorating spires, pinnacles, hoodmoulds, etc., tending to curl downwards in the 13th century, to rise upwards in the 14th and 15th centuries.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Note: croc (French) = hook


Croft:
1) Enclosed land, usually adjacent to the house.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

2) Garden plot of a village house.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)

3) A piece of enclosed ground, generally adjacent to a house, used for tillage or pasture.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)

Related terms: Curtilage / Garth / Toft


Crosses:
Church lands within a liberty, exempt from the jurisdiction of the lord of the liberty, and administered by a royal sheriff.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Crouée:
Demesne furlong, arable.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Crown:
French gold coin weighing 3.99 gm (though weight fluctuated), worth 20.5 sols.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Crown-Post:
Post standing on a tie-beam to support the collar purlin and usually with four-way struts to it and the collar or its braces. Often shaped like a small column, the short examples usually dating from the 14th century, the tall and slim ones from the 13th and 15th centuries.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Cruck-Spur:
Small timber projecting from the outer edge of a cruck blade to support or anchor the wall plate, used in an open cruck truss without a tie-beam.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Related terms: Crucks, Base / Crucks


Crucks:
1) Pair of curved timbers extending from ground to roof ridge supporting wall and roof of a building.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

2) Primitive truss formed by two main timbers, usually curved, set up as arch or inverted V. Each cruck is called a blade, and a pair may be cut from the same tree.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Related terms: Cruck-Spur / Crucks, Base


Crucks, Base:
Crucks truncated by a collar-beam.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Related terms: Base Crucks / Cruck-Spur / Crucks


Crusades:
Military expeditions, traditionally eight in number, undertaken between 1095 and 1271 to win or hold the Holy Land against Muslim rulers; term extended to other military expeditions undertaken to defend or spread Christianity. The word "crusade" was derived from the cross (crux) which crusaders sewed on their clothing.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 361)


Cuir Bouilli:
Leather hardened in boiling wax.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Cuisses:
Plate armour pieces protecting the thighs.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Armor


Culdees:
Religious ascetics "Culdee means servant of god" Irish/Scottish preservers of old Gaelic Customs.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Culverin:
1) Light cannon firing lead or bronze bullets - mounted on portable rest and the ancestor of the hand gun and the harquebus.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)

2) Long-barrelled cannon of cast bronze with a small calibre.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 248)

Related terms: Ribeaudequin


Cumans: [Polovsty]
A Turkish people who appeared in the Steppes in the eleventh century after the decline of the Pechenegs. They were a problem for the eastern Balkans for the next two centuries owing to their raids. However, others settled in Bulgaria and comprised a valuable portion of the armies of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Curate:
Priest who exercised the cure of souls in a parish or who held an office to which it was attached in a cathedral; in parishes the curate could thus be the rector or vicar or the senior chaplain acting for them in their absence.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Cure of Souls: [Cure]
Responsibility for the care of souls of others.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 361)


Curia:
1) Latin for a court - in both senses of that word, royal and legal; applied to the king's court as well as the papal, but usually in this period chiefly with reference to the papal court or household.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 362)

2) Could also be a courtyard.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)


Curia Regis:
English royal council and court of justice.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 230)


Cursarius:
A courser or swift riding horse; occurs in England mainly from the fourteenth century onwards. Possibly a variant of catzurius.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)

Related terms: Catzurius


Cursitor:
The lowest grade of clerks in the chancery, probably responsible for writing out standardized writs.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 238)


Curtain: [Curtain Wall]
1) A castle wall enclosing a courtyard.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

2) Outer wall of a castle, between towers.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Related terms: Castle / Curtain, Inner / Curtain, Outer


Curtain, Inner:
The high wall the surrounds the inner ward.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Curtain, Outer:
The wall the encloses the outer ward.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Curtana:
The sword "curtana" was the pointless sword of mercy (as opposed to the pointed sword of justice) borne before the English king at his coronation.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 222)


Curtilage:
1) Yard adjacent to the house.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

2) A small court, yard, or piece of ground attached to a dwelling-house, and forming one enclosure with it.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)

Related terms: Croft


Cushion Capital:
Cubical (square) capital, with lower angles rounded off to fit the circular shaft.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)


Cusp:
Point separating the foils (small arcs) in tracery.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Note: cuspis (Latin) = point
Related terms: Chamfer Cusp / Cusp-Point / Sub-Cusp


Cusp-Point:
End of cusp sometimes ornamented with leaves, flowers, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 411)

Related terms: Cusp


Customs:
1) A) Unwritten law; B) levies on imported or exported goods.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

2) Used in three senses: A) the customary rules and procedures of a town, especially in legal matters; B) "the king's customs", i.e. the early medieval customary dues, like landgable and tolls, owed to the king; C) customs duties on the import or export of mechandise, including both local customs imposed in a particular port for its own profit and the national customs imposed (in England between 1203-6 and from 1275).
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 198)


Custumal:
1) Written collection of manorial customs.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

2) Document listing obligations and rights of tenants.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 244)


Cymraeg:
Welsh Language name for itself.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Language: Welsh


Cymru: [Cumree]
Welsh name for the Welsh.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Language: Welsh


Cyrillic:
The alphabet used for the Slavic languages of the Orthodox Slavs: e.g., the Bulgarians, Serbs (including Montenegrins), Macedonians, and Russians. It was named for Saint Cyril (Constantine), one of the two apostles to the Slavs who created in the ninth century the first Slavic literary language (what we now call Old Church Slavonic).
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)



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