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Bacinet:
Relatively light helmet with a rounded or pointed top. It might be fitted with a visor.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Badge:
An emblematic figure, especially placed on some prominent part of the clothing of servants and retainers, such as the breast, back, sleeve, etc., to show to what household they belonged; found also on flags, buildings, etc.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Baffle Entrance:
A doorway into a house after which it is not possible to go straight into a room as the way is blocked by a wall, usually containing a chimney stack, so that it is necessary to turn either left or right into the rooms on either side.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 135)


Bailey:
Defended courtyard of a castle.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

Related terms: Castle / Ward


Bailiff: [bailie, bailo]
1) Manorial official, overseer of the manor, chosen by the lord.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

2) Chief representative of a lord on a manor (usually an outsider appointed by the lord).
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)

Related terms: Bailli


Bailli:
Royal officer responsible for the administration of justice and of revenue in a baillage or district.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Bailiff


Balinger:
Small oared vessel with single mast and sail.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Ballinger


Balk:
1) Turf left unplowed to provide separation between strips.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)

2) A ridge left between two furrows, or a strip of ground left unploughed as a boundary line between two ploughed portions.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)


Ball-Flower:
1) Globular ornament consisting of three-petalled flower enclosing a small ball.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

2) Ornament resembling a ball enclosed in a globular three-petalled flower; characteristic of the first quarter of the 14th century.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 409)


Ballinger:
English sailing barge usually with from forty to fifty oars, shallow-draughted and clinker built.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Balinger


Ballista:
Engine resembling a crossbow, used in hurling missles or large arrows.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)


Baluster:
1) A short shaft, such as is used in balustrades, usually thicker in the middle than at the ends.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

2) A small column supporting a hand-rail.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 409)

Related terms: Balustrade


Balustrade:
A series of balusters.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 409)

Related terms: Baluster


Ban:
1) A King's power to command and prohibit under pain of punishment or death, mainly used because of a break in the King's Peace. Also a royal proclamation, either of a call to arms, or a decree of outlawry. In clerical terms, an excommunication on condemnation by the church.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Power originally wielded by the king, but later assumed by counts and castellans to exploit men and levy dues and services in return for protection. Hence ban inférieur, seigneurie banale, etc.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

3) A ruler or governor of a large province, usually a subordinate of the King of Hungary (or historically so). The title was used in the western Balkans in Bosnia, Croatia, Slavonia, and Macva. On occassion a banship became hereditary. Sometimes bans were able to achieve considerable, if not complete, independence.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 621)

Related terms: Banate


Banalities:
Fees which a feudal lord imposes on his serfs for the use of his mill, oven, wine press, or similar facilities. It some times includes part of a fish catch or the proceeds from a rabbit warren.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Banate: [Banovina]
The territory ruled by a ban.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 621)

Related terms: Ban


Bandon: [banda (pl.)]
A tactical unit of Byzantine cavalry numbering 450 men.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)


Banneret:
1) A military rank, superior to that of a knight. Bannerets bore square banners, rather than long pennons.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

2) Lord entitled to have a banner, and drawing higher wages of war than an ordinary knight.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Banvin:
Monopoly of wine sales at end of season.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Bar Tracery:


Barb: [Barbary horse]
A breed of horse from "Barbary", or Berber, coast of the Mediterranean (Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco), and rather smaller than the Arabian. The term equus de Barbaria occurs in letters of the Emperor Frederick II in 1240. In England the term "Barb" is first found in 1636.
   (Davis, R.H.C. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin, Development and Redevelopment, 135)


Barbed, Rowed, and Shorn:
Three finishing processes in the manufacture of cloth.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Barber-Surgeon:
Monastic who shaves faces/heads and performs light surgery.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Barbican:
1) An outwork or forward extension of a castle gateway.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

2) Outerwork of a castle, providing additional defence for the gatehouse. Also used to describe the strategy developed by the English in the late fourteenth century.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Castle


Bard:
A minstrel or poet who glorifies the virtues of the people and chieftains.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Barded Horse:
A vassal who holds directly from the crown and serves as a member of the king's great council. It is not, of itself, a title, but rather a description of the Tenants in Chief class of nobility.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Horse, Barded


Baron: [Old French "man"]
A vassal who holds directly from the crown and serves as a member of the king's great council. It is not, of itself, a title, but rather a description of the Tenants in Chief class of nobility.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Baronage / Barony


Baron of Exchequer:
A judge of the court of the exchequer.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 143)


Baronage:
The leading members of the landed elite, above the bannerets. The title of baron carried no specific duties or rights, though most were treated as peers.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 237)

Related terms: Barony / Baron


Baronnie:
Supplementary profits arising from the expolitation of men.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Barony:
1) Name given to administrative divisions of certain counties.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

2) Land held as a grant directly from the king.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 143)

Related terms: Baron / Baronage / Cantred


Barrel Roof:
Like a covered wagon, or inverted ship.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 409)

Related terms: Wagon Roof


Barrel Vault:


Barrow:
An earthen burial mound.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)


Bartizan:
Overhanging battlemented corner turret, corbelled out; common in French and Scottish military architecture.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Castle


Bascinet:
A fourteenth century open-faced helmet of globular or pointed shape, which extended downwards to protect the cheeks and the back of the neck. An aventail was added c. 1320 and a pointed visor after 1350.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)


Base Crucks:


Bassinet:
Conical helmet with "hounskul" (or "pig-face") pointed visor.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Bascinet / Bacinet / Close-Helmet / Coif / Cerevelliere


Bastard:
Title borne by acknowledged eldest natural son of a noble.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Bastardy, Special / Bourc


Bastardy, Special:
Illegitimacy prior to parent's subsequent marriage.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 145)

Related terms: Bastard / Special Bastardy


Bastide:
See: Gagnage


Bastille:
1) Redoubt or outwork. (military architecture)
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

2) Wooden tower on wheels for assault, used in siege warfare.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Castle


Bastion:
1) Round or polygonal tower projecting from walls.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

2) A small tower at the end of a curtain wall or in the middle of the outside wall.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Batter:
1) Lower sloping surface of a wall linking a wide base to a narrower upper structure.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

2) A sloping part of a curtain wall. The sharp angle at the base of all walls and towers along their exterior surface.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Battle:
1) A main division of the army; usually there were three or four battles in an army.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

2) A division of troops commanded by a peer or knight banneret.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)


Battlements:
1) Indented parapet for defence.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

2) A narrow wall built along the outer edge of the wall walk to protect the soldiers against attack.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Bauding:
Tenants' assembly.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: Bavaria


Bavier:
Chin-piece; so called from its resemblance to a bib. (armour)
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

Related terms: Armor


Bay:
A constituent protion or compartment of a building, complete in itself and corresponding to other portions.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Bay Window:
Projecting window usually at ground level.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Oriel


Bead:
A small round moulding.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Beadle:
Manorial official, usually assistant to reeve.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)


Beg: [Bey]
A member of a dualistic, heretical sect that arose in Bulgaria in the mid-tenth century and spread beyond Bulgaria into the Byzantine Empire, and from there along the Mediterranean to the south of Western Europe.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 621)


Beguines: [Beghards]
Since the twelfth century, a name for pious women who lived in small voluntary groups for religious purposes, but did not take religious vows. They were free to own property, to leave the group and to marry. Beghards were men who lived the same sort of life. They were prominent in Low Countries and the Rhineland; sometimes suspected by church authorities of heresy.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 359)


Belfry:
Large movable wooden tower used in sieges.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Benedictine Order:
Monastic order founded by St. Benedictine. Monks take vows of personal poverty, chastity and obedience to their abbot and the Benedictine Rule.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Black Monks / Cistercians


Benefice: [beneficium (Latin)]
1) A grant of land given to a member of the aristocracy, a bishop, or a monastery, for limited or hereditary use in exchange for services. In ecclesiastic terms, a benefice is a church office that returns revenue.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The grant made by a lord, usually of land.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 229)

3) An endowed church office.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 359)

4) An ecclesiastical office, such as a parish church or prebend, to which specific duties and revenues are assigned.
   (Waugh, Scott. England in the Reign of Edward III, 237)

5) Ecclesiastical appointment, with cure of souls, usually held by rector or vicar of parish church.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 143)

6) Normally referring to the income, endowments and rights (or the living) of a parish church, but generally used of any church with income. Derived from beneficium, the feudal land given in return for service.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 359)


Benefit of Clergy:
1) A privilege enjoyed by members of the clergy, including tonsured clerks, placing them beyond the jurisdiction of secular courts.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The legal privilege of those who could prove they were clergy to be tried and sentenced for felonies in the church courts and punished by the church.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 359)


Benevolence:
Tax imposed under guise of voluntary loan.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)


Berm:
1) Strip of ground between the base of the curtain wall and the ditch.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

2) Flat space between the base of the curtain wall and the inner edge of the moat.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Castle


Besagues:
Circular plates laced to the outside of the elbow joint and front of the shoulder to protect the joints in an armour.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)

Related terms: Armor


Bevor:
A high collar of plate covering the lower half of the face.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)

Related terms: Armor


Bezant:
A coin first struck at Byzantium (in other words Constantinople). There were gold bezants, varying in value between a sovereign and a half-sovereign, and silver ones worth from a florin to a shilling.
   (Shaw, M.R.B. Joinville & Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, 361)


Bill:
1) A) Short, informal note; B) document initiating proceedings at common law or in equity; C) petition in parliament, on which enactment may be made.
   (Sayles, George O. The King's Parliament of England, 144)

2) Miltiary use: a weapon based on agricultural tools and usually having a hooked blade with spikes at top and rear.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 246)

Related terms: Petition


Bishop:
A church officer consecrated to the highest of the holy orders; usually the head of a diocese with spiritual authority over the other clergy and laity in that diocese; believed to be a successor to the apostles; word derived from the Greek episcopos, "overseer".
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 359)


Black Canons:
A common name for Augustinian Canons, derived from the color of their robes.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Augustinian Canons


Black Death:
Bubonic plague that ravaged Europe and Asia in the mid-fourteenth century and reappeared periodically in Europe for generations.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)


Black Monks:
A common name for members of the Benedictine Order derived from the color of the habits.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Related terms: Benedictine Order


Blanc:
French equivalent of groat but mainly of base metal instead of silver.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)


Bloodfeud:
Conflict between kin-groups, arising from an attempt to exact vengeance or compensation for a previous injury.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)


Bogomil:
A member of a dualistic, heretical sect that arose in Bulgaria in the mid-tenth century and spread beyond Bulgaria into the Byzantine Empire, and from there along the Mediterranean to the south of Western Europe.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 621)


Bolting-House:
A place where bran is bolted (i.e. sifted) from flour.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Bombard:
Heavy cannon used in siege warfare, firing gunstones or metal cannon balls of up to 1,000 lb.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)


Bombasted:
Stuffed with cotton, hair, etc. (costume)
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Bond:
Arrangement of bricks in courses.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Bond, English:
1) Alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

2) In which the bricks are laid in alternate courses of stretchers (with the long sides visible) and headers (with the short ends visible), so that each alternate course is bonded through. This is the common European medieval bond.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 135)


Bond, English Garden-Wall:
In which there is a single course of headers and then five (or sometimes three) courses of stretchers. This is not so strong since the bricks are bonded only through every fourth or sixth course. This is characterisitic post-medieval bond in the north of England for ordinary buildings.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 136)


Bond, Flemish:
Alternate headers and stretchers in the same course.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Bond, Header:
Bricks laid so that only ends show on wall face.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Bondman:
Serf; villein.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)


Bonnier:
Between 2.2 and 3.5 acres.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Boon-work:
1) Work done on the lord's land by dependent peasants for a fixed number of days per week.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

2) Obligation of tenants for special work services, notably the lord's harvest.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)

3) A day's work, given gratuitously to a lord by his men on a special occasion.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)


Bordar:
1) Smallholding cottager of lesser standing than villein but better off than cottar.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

2) Usually, in rural contexts, a relatively humble peasant occupying a cottage with little or no arable attached.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)


Borde:
Peasant holding in Toulouse region [of France].
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: France


Borough: [burg, burgh, burh (Old English) and burgus (Latin)]
1) A town with the right of self government granted by royal charter.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Originally a defended farm or residence but usually used in the meaning current from the ninth to the eleventh centuries, namely an urban settlement, normally fortified.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

3) At first used of any fortified place, not necessarily a town; by the eleventh century the word had strong urban connotations.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Related terms: Burgus / Burh


Borough-English:
1) A term which designates the custom of ultimogeniture (All lands inherited by the youngest son).
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) The name of a form of land-tenure whereby a man's property descended to his youngest son.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)


Borre:
A Scandinavian art style named from objects found in the ship burial in a great barrow at Boore in Vestfold in Norway and datable to the late ninth and early tenth centuries. It is most commonly found on small cast cooper-alloy objects and is typified by a ring chain pattern made up of a double ribbon plait forming a symmetrical interlace. Each intersection is bound by a circle which surrounds a hollow-sided lozenge. Borre-style objects were not necessarily imported and were made in the north of England, for example at York.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 135)


Bosnian Church:
An independent Church in Bosnia, often called heretical, but probably only in schism from Rome. It existed from the mid- to late thirteenth century until the late fifteenth century.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 621)


Boss:
Projecting ornament concealing intersection of vaulting ribs, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Note: bosse (French) = lump or knot


Bourc:
Gascon title meaning "bastard", but to which no stigma attached. It was adopted as a matter of course by illegitimate sons of prominent families.
   (Brereton, Geoffrey. Froissart Chronicles, 473)

Related terms: Bastard


Bovate:
1) An eighth of a carucate. Sometimes reckoned at 15 acres; land ploughed by two oxen.
   (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 213)

2) An ox-gang, or as much land as an ox could plough in a year; varying in amount from 10 to 18 acres according to the system of tillage.
   (Bennett, H.S. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400, 337)

3) A measurement of land. One eighth of a carucate; notionally as much land as could be kept under plough by one ox. Also known as an oxgang or oxgate of land.
   (Warren, W.L. Henry II, 633)


Bowyer:
Bow maker.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

Related terms: Fletcher


Boyar: [Bojar]
A member of the military landed aristocracy in Bulgaria. The term was also used in Russia.
   (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 622)


Brace:
Subsidiary timber of a roof, inserted to strengthen the framing.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Bracers:
Plate armour for the arms.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)

Related terms: Armor


Brandes Arces:
Heathlands of the Sologne district.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Brassier:
All-but landless peasant.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)


Brattishing:
Ornamental cresting on screen, cornice, etc.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Breche:
Breeches.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Brehon Laws: [Feinechus]
An ancient Irish legal system.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

Location: Ireland


Bressumer:
Beam supporting an upper wall of timber framing.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Bretasche:
Protective wooden screen used in siege warfare.
   (Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience, 347)


Brigandine: [Brigantine]
1) Metal splints sewed upon canvas, linen, or leather and covered with similar materials; a material used in making light armour. A "pair of brigandines" is a body-coat of this material, in two pieces.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

2) Defensive jacket of metal plates on cloth.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)

3) A canvas or leather jacket with small plates of metal stitched inside, popular from c. 1340.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)

Related terms: Armor / Jack


Brimstone:
Sulphur.
   (Seward, Desmond. Henry V: The Scourge of God, 221)


Broach-Stop:
A half pyramid against the chamfer to bring the edge to a right angle, often short with deep hollow chamfer in the 13th century, long with very shallow hollow chamfer in the 15th century.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Buckler:
A small round shield carried by infantry to parry blows.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)

Related terms: Armor


Buffet:
See: Colée


Bull:
An authoritiative papal letter, sealed with the lead seal, or bulla, of the pope.
   (Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461, 359)


Bullace:
A small tree or large shrub bearing black fruits 1-1.5in. long with comparatively large stones. Spreads by cuckers - shoots arising from underground from parts of the root system - and therefore often develops into dense stands. Frequently found near to former habitation; not much grown today. Technically a sub species of the plum and its allies; the normal plum of gardens is another sub species.
   (Beresford, Maurice and Hurst, John. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village, 136)


Burel Cloth:
Coarse woolen cloth.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)


Burgage:
A unit of property in a borough, generally comprising a house but not much appurtenant land, held for a money-rent and according to the more or less standard rules of burgage tenure.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Related terms: Burgage Tenure


Burgage Tenure:
A freehold, usually within a town or borough; the holder customarily pays a money rent in lieu of all services, military or other.
   (Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of the Common Law, 255)

Related terms: Burgage


Burgess: [Burgensis (Latin)]
1) The holder of land or house within a borough.
   (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms)

2) Member of a borough community, sharing in its communal privileges.
   (Frame, Robin. Colonial Ireland, 1169-1369, 144)

3) The member of a town (borough) community, generally a householder paying his share of any communal dues and thus participating in communal privileges and possessing the "freedom of the borough", "burgess franchise", or "borough franchise".
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Related terms: Franchise


Burgher:
A townsman.
   (Wise, Terence. Medieval Warfare, 247)


Burgonet:
A steel cap with chin-piece; a feature of sixteenth-century armour.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

Related terms: Armor


Burgus:

Language: Latin See: Borough


Burgware:
The inhabitants of burh.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Language: Old English


Burh:

Language: Old English See: Borough / Burhgemot


Burhgemot:
A court held in a burh.
   (Reynolds, Susan. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns, 197)

Language: Old English
Related terms: Burh


Buteil:
Lord's right to a third or half share of his man's estate.
   (Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, 554)

Location: Germany
Related terms: Heriot / Meilleur Catel / Mortmain / Mainmorte


Butt:
Small part of a plowed field, often the portion remaining after plowing.
   (Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside, 234)


Butt Purlin:


Buttery: [Botelerie (Middle English)]
1) Room for the service of beverages.
   (Gies, Joseph and Francis. Life in a Medieval Castle, 225)

2) Storeroom for wine and other beverages.
   (Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications, 211)

Related terms: Castle


Buttress:
Projection from a wall for additional support.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Buttress, Angle:
A pair meeting (or nearly) at right angles on the corner of a building.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)


Buttress, Diagonal:
One set on the angle of a building, diagonally to each wall.
   (Wood, Margaret. The English Medieval House, 410)

Related terms: Buttress, Angle / Buttress


Bylaws:
Rules made by open-field villagers governing cultivation and grazing.
   (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 243)


Byrnie:
A mail shirt, the prescursor of the hauberk.
   (Davis, H.W. C. (ed.) Medieval England, 615)

Related terms: Armor


Byzantine Empire:
The eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; it was closely intertwined with the Greek Orthodox church; the empire's long history of advance and retreat ended in 1453 when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks.
   (Lynch, Joseph H. The Medieval Church: A Brief History, 360)



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